Concept: 7 World Trade Center
Review of Non-Respiratory, Non-Cancer Physical Health Conditions from Exposure to the World Trade Center Disaster
- International journal of environmental research and public health
- Published almost 3 years ago
After the World Trade Center attacks on 11 September 2001 (9/11), multiple cohorts were developed to monitor the health outcomes of exposure. Respiratory and cancer effects have been covered at length. This current study sought to review the literature on other physical conditions associated with 9/11-exposure. Researchers searched seven databases for literature published in English from 2002 to October 2017, coded, and included articles for health condition outcome, population, 9/11-exposures, and comorbidity. Of the 322 titles and abstracts screened, 30 studies met inclusion criteria, and of these, 28 were from three cohorts: the World Trade Center Health Registry, Fire Department of New York, and World Trade Center Health Consortium. Most studies focused on rescue and recovery workers. While many of the findings were consistent across different populations and supported by objective measures, some of the less studied conditions need additional research to substantiate current findings. In the 16 years after 9/11, longitudinal cohorts have been essential in investigating the health consequences of 9/11-exposure. Longitudinal studies will be vital in furthering our understanding of these emerging conditions, as well as treatment effectiveness.
BACKGROUND: Longitudinal symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are often characterized by heterogeneous trajectories, which may have unique pre-, peri- and post-trauma risk and protective factors. To date, however, no study has evaluated the nature and determinants of predominant trajectories of PTSD symptoms in World Trade Center (WTC) responders. Method A total of 10835 WTC responders, including 4035 professional police responders and 6800 non-traditional responders (e.g. construction workers) who participated in the WTC Health Program (WTC-HP), were evaluated an average of 3, 6 and 8 years after the WTC attacks. RESULTS: Among police responders, longitudinal PTSD symptoms were best characterized by four classes, with the majority (77.8%) in a resistant/resilient trajectory and the remainder exhibiting chronic (5.3%), recovering (8.4%) or delayed-onset (8.5%) symptom trajectories. Among non-traditional responders, a six-class solution was optimal, with fewer responders in a resistant/resilient trajectory (58.0%) and the remainder exhibiting recovering (12.3%), severe chronic (9.5%), subsyndromal increasing (7.3%), delayed-onset (6.7%) and moderate chronic (6.2%) trajectories. Prior psychiatric history, Hispanic ethnicity, severity of WTC exposure and WTC-related medical conditions were most strongly associated with symptomatic trajectories of PTSD symptoms in both groups of responders, whereas greater education and family and work support while working at the WTC site were protective against several of these trajectories. CONCLUSIONS: Trajectories of PTSD symptoms in WTC responders are heterogeneous and associated uniquely with pre-, peri- and post-trauma risk and protective factors. Police responders were more likely than non-traditional responders to exhibit a resistant/resilient trajectory. These results underscore the importance of prevention, screening and treatment efforts that target high-risk disaster responders, particularly those with prior psychiatric history, high levels of trauma exposure and work-related medical morbidities.
Multiple chronic health conditions have been associated with exposure to the September 11, 2001 World Trade Center (WTC) terrorist attacks (9/11). We assessed whether excess deaths occurred during 2003-2014 among persons directly exposed to 9/11, and examined associations of 9/11-related exposures with mortality risk.
Post-traumatic symptomatology is one of the signature effects of the pernicious exposures endured by responders to the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster of 11 September 2001 (9/11), but the long-term extent of diagnosed Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and its impact on quality of life are unknown. This study examines the extent of DSM-IV PTSD 11-13 years after the disaster in WTC responders, its symptom profiles and trajectories, and associations of active, remitted and partial PTSD with exposures, physical health and psychosocial well-being.
BackgroundLittle is known about asthma control in adolescents who were exposed to the World Trade Center (WTC) attacks of 9/11/2001 and diagnosed with asthma after 9/11. This report examines asthma and asthma control 10-11 years after 9/11 among exposed adolescents.MethodsThe WTC Health Registry adolescent Wave 3 survey (2011-2012) collected data on asthma diagnosed by a physician after 9/11/2001, extent of asthma control based on modified National Asthma Education and Prevention Program criteria, probable mental health conditions, and behavior problems. Parents reported healthcare needs and 9/11-exposures. Logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between asthma and level of asthma control and 9/11-exposure, mental health and behavioral problems, and unmet healthcare needs.ResultsPoorly/very poorly controlled asthma was significantly associated with a household income of ≤$75,000 (AOR: 3.0; 95% CI: 1.1-8.8), having unmet healthcare needs (AOR: 6.2; 95% CI: 1.4-27.1), and screening positive for at least one mental health condition (AOR: 5.0; 95% CI: 1.4-17.7), but not with behavioral problems. The impact of having at least one mental health condition on the level of asthma control was substantially greater in females than in males.ConclusionsComprehensive care of post-9/11 asthma in adolescents should include management of mental health-related comorbidities.
Little is known about the direction of causality among asthma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and onset of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms (GERS) after exposure to the 9/11/2001 World Trade Center (WTC) disaster.
Endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling has been identified as a modulator of adaptation to stress, and is integral to basal and stress-induced glucocorticoid regulation. Furthermore, interactions between eCBs and glucocorticoids have been shown to be necessary for the regulation of emotional memories, suggesting that eCB function may relate to the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To examine this, plasma eCBs were measured in a sample (n=46) drawn from a population-based cohort selected for physical proximity to the World Trade Center (WTC) at the time of the 9/11 attacks. Participants received a structured diagnostic interview and were grouped according to whether they met diagnostic criteria for PTSD (no PTSD, n=22; lifetime diagnosis of PTSD=24). eCB content (2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide (AEA)) and cortisol were measured from 8 a.m. plasma samples. Circulating 2-AG content was significantly reduced among individuals meeting diagnostic criteria for PTSD. The effect of reduced 2-AG content in PTSD remained significant after controlling for the stress of exposure to the WTC collapse, gender, depression and alcohol abuse. There were no significant group differences for AEA or cortisol levels; however, across the whole sample AEA levels positively correlated with circulating cortisol, and AEA levels exhibited a negative relationship with the degree of intrusive symptoms within the PTSD sample. This report shows that PTSD is associated with a reduction in circulating levels of the eCB 2-AG. Given the role of 2-AG in the regulation of the stress response, these data support the hypothesis that deficient eCB signaling may be a component of the glucocorticoid dysregulation associated with PTSD. The negative association between AEA levels and intrusive symptoms is consistent with animal data indicating that reductions in AEA promote retention of aversive emotional memories. Future work will aim to replicate these findings and extend their relevance to clinical pathophysiology, as well as to neuroendocrine and molecular markers of PTSD.
Sarcoidosis is thought to represent a genetically-primed, abnormal immune response to an antigen exposure or inflammatory trigger, with both genetic and environmental factors playing a role in disease onset and phenotypic expression. In a population of firefighters with post-WTC-9/11/2001 (9/11) sarcoidosis, we have a unique opportunity to describe the clinical course of incident sarcoidosis during the 15-years post-exposure and, on average, 8-years after diagnosis.
Exposure to the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center (WTC) on 9/11/2001 resulted in continuing stress experience manifested as Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Symptoms in a minority of the police responders. The WTC Health Registry has followed up a large number of individuals, including police officers, at three waves of data collection from 2003 to 2011. This analysis examines the relationship between initial exposure levels, long-term PTSD symptoms, and subsequent emotional support among police responders.
We studied the course of lower respiratory symptoms (LRS; cough, wheeze or dyspnoea) among community members exposed to the 9/11/2001 World Trade Center (WTC) attacks during a period of 12-13 years following the attacks, and evaluated risk factors for LRS persistence, including peripheral airway dysfunction and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).