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Concept: 2DEG


In this study, we investigate the effect of annealing and nitrogen amount on electronic transport properties in n- and p-type-doped Ga0.68In0.32NyAs1 - y/GaAs quantum well (QW) structures with y = 0%, 0.9%, 1.2%, 1.7%. The samples are thermal annealed at 700°C for 60 and 600 s, and Hall effect measurements have been performed between 10 and 300 K. Drastic decrease is observed in the electron mobility of n-type N-containing samples due to the possible N-induced scattering mechanisms and increasing effect mass of the alloy. The temperature dependence of electron mobility has an almost temperature insensitive characteristic, whereas for p-type samples hole mobility is decreased drastically at T > 120 K. As N concentration is increased, the hole mobility also increased as a reason of decreasing lattice mismatch. Screening effect of N-related alloy scattering over phonon scattering in n-type samples may be the reason of the temperature-insensitive electron mobility. At low temperature regime, hole mobility is higher than electron mobility by a factor of 3 to 4. However, at high temperatures (T > 120 K), the mobility of p-type samples is restricted by the scattering of the optical phonons. Because the valance band discontinuity is smaller compared to the conduction band, thermionic transport of holes from QW to the barrier material, GaAs, also contributes to the mobility at high temperatures that results in a decrease in mobility. The hole mobility results of as-grown samples do not show a systematic behavior, while annealed samples do, depending on N concentration. Thermal annealing does not show a significant improvement of electron mobility.

Concepts: Quantum mechanics, Condensed matter physics, Semiconductor, Gas, Phonon, Semiconductors, 2DEG, Electron hole


In this work, we study the exciton states in a zincblende InGaN/GaN quantum well using a variational technique. The system is considered under the action of intense laser fields with the incorporation of a dc electric field as an additional external probe. The effects of these external influences as well as of the changes in the geometry of the heterostructure on the exciton binding energy are discussed in detail.

Concepts: Electron, Photon, Quantum mechanics, Fundamental physics concepts, Mass, Nuclear fusion, Noether's theorem, 2DEG


Electrostatic gates are of paramount importance for the physics of devices based on high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) since they allow depletion of electrons in selected areas. This field-effect gating enables the fabrication of a wide range of devices such as, for example, quantum point contacts (QPC), electron interferometers and quantum dots. To fabricate these gates, processing is usually performed on the 2DEG material, which is in many cases detrimental to its electron mobility. Here we propose an alternative process which does not require any processing of the 2DEG material other than for the ohmic contacts. This approach relies on processing a separate wafer that is then mechanically mounted on the 2DEG material in a flip-chip fashion. This technique proved successful to fabricate quantum point contacts on both GaAs/AlGaAs materials with both moderate and ultra-high electron mobility.

Concepts: Electron, Quantum mechanics, Fundamental physics concepts, Particle physics, Condensed matter physics, Semiconductor, Standard Model, 2DEG


Measurement of femtoscale displacements in the ultrasonic frequency range is attractive for advanced material characterization and sensing, yet major challenges remain in their reliable transduction using non-optical modalities, which can dramatically reduce the size and complexity of the transducer assembly. Here we demonstrate femtoscale displacement transduction using an AlGaN/GaN heterojunction field effect transistor-integrated GaN microcantilever that utilizes piezoelectric polarization-induced changes in two-dimensional electron gas to transduce displacement with very high sensitivity. The piezotransistor demonstrated an ultra-high gauge factor of 8,700 while consuming an extremely low power of 1.36 nW, and transduced external excitation with a superior noise-limited resolution of 12.43 fm Hz(-½) and an outstanding responsivity of 170 nV fm(-1), which is comparable to the optical transduction limits. These extraordinary characteristics, which enabled unique detection of nanogram quantity of analytes using photoacoustic spectroscopy, can be readily exploited in realizing a multitude of novel sensing paradigms.

Concepts: Condensed matter physics, Measurement, Ultrasound, Demonstration, Materials science, Frequency, Microphone, 2DEG


A d-orbital electron has an anisotropic electron orbital and is a source of magnetism. The realization of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) embedded at a LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface surprised researchers in materials and physical sciences because the 2DEG consists of 3d-electrons of Ti with extraordinarily large carrier mobility, even in the insulating oxide heterostructure. To date, a wide variety of physical phenomena, such as ferromagnetism and the quantum Hall effect, have been discovered in this 2DEG system, demonstrating the ability of d-electron 2DEG systems to provide a material platform for the study of interesting physics. However, because of both ferromagnetism and the Rashba field, long-range spin transport and the exploitation of spintronics functions have been believed difficult to implement in d-electron 2DEG systems. Here, we report the experimental demonstration of room-temperature spin transport in a d-electron-based 2DEG at a LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface, where the spin relaxation length is about 300 nm. Our finding, which counters the conventional understandings of d-electron 2DEGs, highlights the spin-functionality of conductive oxide systems and opens the field of d-electron spintronics.

Concepts: Electron, Magnetic field, Fundamental physics concepts, Physics, Condensed matter physics, Spintronics, Quantum Hall effect, 2DEG


The discovery of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface 1 has resulted in the observation of many properties2-5 not present in conventional semiconductor heterostructures, and so become a focal point for device applications6-8. Its counterpart, the two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG), is expected to complement the 2DEG. However, although the 2DEG has been widely observed 9 , the 2DHG has proved elusive. Herein we demonstrate a highly mobile 2DHG in epitaxially grown SrTiO3/LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures. Using electrical transport measurements and in-line electron holography, we provide direct evidence of a 2DHG that coexists with a 2DEG at complementary heterointerfaces in the same structure. First-principles calculations, coherent Bragg rod analysis and depth-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy consistently support our finding that to eliminate ionic point defects is key to realizing a 2DHG. The coexistence of a 2DEG and a 2DHG in a single oxide heterostructure provides a platform for the exciting physics of confined electron-hole systems and for developing applications.

Concepts: Electricity, Fundamental physics concepts, Observation, Semiconductor, Electron mobility, Evidence law, Heterojunction, 2DEG


Charge carriers in graphene behave like massless Dirac fermions (MDFs) with linear energy-momentum dispersion 1, 2 , providing a condensed-matter platform for studying quasiparticles with relativistic-like features. Artificial graphene (AG)-a structure with an artificial honeycomb lattice-exhibits novel phenomena due to the tunable interplay between topology and quasiparticle interactions 3-6 . So far, the emergence of a Dirac band structure supporting MDFs has been observed in AG using molecular 5 , atomic 6, 7 and photonic systems 8-10 , including those with semiconductor microcavities 11 . Here, we report the realization of an AG that has a band structure with vanishing density of states consistent with the presence of MDFs. This observation is enabled by a very small lattice constant (a = 50 nm) of the nanofabricated AG patterns superimposed on a two-dimensional electron gas hosted by a high-quality GaAs quantum well. Resonant inelastic light-scattering spectra reveal low-lying transitions that are not present in the unpatterned GaAs quantum well. These excitations reveal the energy dependence of the joint density of states for AG band transitions. Fermi level tuning through the Dirac point results in a collapse of the density of states at low transition energy, suggesting the emergence of the MDF linear dispersion in the AG.

Concepts: Electron, Quantum mechanics, Fundamental physics concepts, Condensed matter physics, Atom, Gallium arsenide, Semiconductor, 2DEG


The Rashba physics has been intensively studied in the field of spin orbitronics for the purpose of searching novel physical properties and the ferromagnetic (FM) magnetization switching for technological applications. We report our observation of the inverse Edelstein effect up to room temperature in the Rashba-split two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) between two insulating oxides, SrTiO3 and LaAlO3, with the LaAlO3 layer thickness from 3 to 40 unit cells (UC). We further demonstrate that the spin voltage could be markedly manipulated by electric field effect for the 2DEG between SrTiO3 and 3-UC LaAlO3. These results demonstrate that the Rashba-split 2DEG at the complex oxide interface can be used for efficient charge-and-spin conversion at room temperature for the generation and detection of spin current.

Concepts: Electron, Magnetic field, Fundamental physics concepts, Magnetism, Physical quantities, Standard Model, Physical property, 2DEG


We report intense, narrow line-width, surface chemisorption-activated and reversible ultraviolet (UV) photoluminescence from radiative recombination of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) with photoexcited holes at LaAlO3/SrTiO3. The switchable luminescence arises from an electron transfer-driven modification of the electronic structure via H-chemisorption onto the AlO2-terminated surface of LaAlO3, at least 2 nm away from the interface. The control of the onset of emission and its intensity are functionalities that go beyond the luminescence of compound semiconductor quantum wells. Connections between reversible chemisorption, fast electron transfer, and quantum-well luminescence suggest a new model for surface chemically reconfigurable solid-state UV optoelectronics and molecular sensing.

Concepts: Electron, Photon, Quantum mechanics, Fundamental physics concepts, Atom, Integrated circuit, Semiconductor, 2DEG


Control of electron spin coherence via external fields is fundamental in spintronics. Its implementation demands a host material that accommodates the desirable but contrasting requirements of spin robustness against relaxation mechanisms and sizeable coupling between spin and orbital motion of the carriers. Here, we focus on Ge, which is a prominent candidate for shuttling spin quantum bits into the mainstream Si electronics. So far, however, the intrinsic spin-dependent phenomena of free electrons in conventional Ge/Si heterojunctions have proved to be elusive because of epitaxy constraints and an unfavourable band alignment. We overcome these fundamental limitations by investigating a two-dimensional electron gas in quantum wells of pure Ge grown on Si. These epitaxial systems demonstrate exceptionally long spin lifetimes. In particular, by fine-tuning quantum confinement we demonstrate that the electron Landé g factor can be engineered in our CMOS-compatible architecture over a range previously inaccessible for Si spintronics.

Concepts: Electron, Quantum mechanics, Fundamental physics concepts, Spin, Particle physics, Condensed matter physics, 2DEG, Electron magnetic dipole moment