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Concept: 2020 Summer Olympics

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Rio de Janeiro in Brazil will host the Summer Olympic Games in 2016. About 400,000 non-immune foreign tourists are expected to attend the games. As Brazil is the country with the highest number of dengue cases worldwide, concern about the risk of dengue for travelers is justified.

Concepts: Olympic Games, Rio de Janeiro, Winter Olympic Games, Summer Olympic Games, 2008 Summer Olympics, 2012 Summer Olympics, 2016 Summer Olympics, 2020 Summer Olympics

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Massage therapy (MT) enhances recovery by reducing pain and fatigue in able-bodied endurance athletes. In athletes with disabilities, no studies have examined similar MT outcomes, yet participation in sport has increased by >1000 athletes from 1996 to 2016 Olympic games. We examined the effect of MT on pain, sleep, stress, function and performance goals on the bike, as well as quality of life off the bike, in elite paracycling athletes.

Concepts: Olympic Games, Winter Olympic Games, Summer Olympic Games, Ancient Olympic Games, 2012 Summer Olympics, 2016 Summer Olympics, 1968 Summer Olympics, 2020 Summer Olympics

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Purpose To describe the occurrence of imaging-depicted sports-related stress injuries, fractures, and muscle and tendon disorders during the 2016 Summer Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Materials and Methods Data on radiologic examinations were collected and retrospectively analyzed centrally by two board-certified musculoskeletal radiologists (with a third musculoskeletal radiologist acting as an adjudicator in case of discrepancies). Descriptive data on all imaging examinations by using radiography, ultrasonography (US), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging were collected and analyzed according to imaging modality, country of origin of the athletes, type of sport, and type and location of injury. Results There were 1101 injuries that occurred in 11 274 (9.8%) athletes. A total of 1015 radiologic examinations were performed, including 304 (30.0%) radiographic, 104 (10.2%) US, and 607 (59.8%) MR examinations. Excluding 10 athletes categorized as refugees, athletes from Africa had the highest utilization rate (14.8%, 148 of 1001). Athletes from Europe underwent the most examinations with 103 radiographic, 39 US, and 254 MR examinations. Gymnastics (artistic) had the highest percentage of athletes who underwent imaging (15.5%, 30 of 194). Athletics (track and field) had the most examinations (293, including 53 radiographic, 50 US, and 190 MR examinations). Conclusion The overall occurrence of imaging used to help diagnose sports-related injuries at the Rio de Janeiro 2016 Summer Olympics was 6.4% of athletes. In these cases, MR imaging comprised 60% of imaging utilization.©RSNA, 2018 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

Concepts: Medical imaging, Olympic Games, Radiology, Rio de Janeiro, Summer Olympic Games, 2012 Summer Olympics, 2016 Summer Olympics, 2020 Summer Olympics

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Tendon abnormalities are prevalent among both elite and non-elite athletes. Cross-sectional imaging modalities are used to confirm and evaluate the severity of such lesions.

Concepts: Olympic Games, Rio de Janeiro, Summer Olympic Games, 2012 Summer Olympics, 2016 Summer Olympics, Estádio do Maracanã, Brasília, 2020 Summer Olympics

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Establish the prevalence of illness symptoms, poor sleep quality, poor mental health symptoms, low energy availability and stress-recovery state in an Olympic cohort late in the 3 months prior to the Summer Olympic Games.

Concepts: Olympic Games, Winter Olympic Games, Summer Olympic Games, 2008 Summer Olympics, 2012 Summer Olympics, 2016 Summer Olympics, 1968 Summer Olympics, 2020 Summer Olympics

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This study investigated the effect of using an artificial bright light on the entrainment of the sleep/wake cycle as well as the reaction times of athletes before the Rio 2016 Olympic Games. A total of 22 athletes from the Brazilian Olympic Swimming Team were evaluated, with the aim of preparing them to compete at a time when they would normally be about to go to bed for the night. During the 8-day acclimatization period, their sleep/wake cycles were assessed by actigraphy, with all the athletes being treated with artificial light therapy for between 30 and 45 min (starting at day 3). In addition, other recommendations to improve sleep hygiene were made to the athletes. In order to assess reaction times, the Psychomotor Vigilance Test was performed before (day 1) and after (day 8) the bright light therapy. As a result of the intervention, the athletes slept later on the third (p = 0.01), seventh (p = 0.01) and eighth (p = 0.01) days after starting bright light therapy. Regarding reaction times, when tested in the morning the athletes showed improved average (p = 0.01) and minimum reaction time (p = 0.03) when comparing day 8 to day 1. When tested in the evening, they showed improved average (p = 0.04), minimum (p = 0.03) and maximum reaction time (p = 0.02) when comparing day 8 to day 1. Light therapy treatment delayed the sleep/wake cycles and improved reaction times of members of the swimming team. The use of bright light therapy was shown to be effective in modulating the sleep/wake cycles of athletes who had to perform in competitions that took place late at night.

Concepts: Time, Light, Sleep, Olympic Games, Summer Olympic Games, 2012 Summer Olympics, 2016 Summer Olympics, 2020 Summer Olympics

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Risks associated with Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission in the Americas have been discussed widely in the media as several European athletes declined to participate in the 2016 Summer Olympic Games. Since risk perceptions of individuals in unaffected areas are unknown, we assessed the risk perceptions of ZIKV and related behaviour in Lower Saxony, Germany, with a specific focus on pregnant women and their partners.

Concepts: United States, Olympic Games, Germany, Winter Olympic Games, Summer Olympic Games, 2012 Summer Olympics, 2016 Summer Olympics, 2020 Summer Olympics

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Optimal autonomic regulation and stress resilience might be considered critical elements of athletic performance. We hypothesize that a novel unitary autonomic index for sports (ANSIs), together with a somatic stress related symptom score (4SQ) might help characterize athletes who were eventually selected for the Rio 2016 Olympic Games Italian team (Rio +).

Concepts: Olympic Games, France, Rio de Janeiro, Summer Olympic Games, 2012 Summer Olympics, 2016 Summer Olympics, 1968 Summer Olympics, 2020 Summer Olympics

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The motives for elite athletes to dope are related primarily to maintaining and improving their physical performance. Especially, elite athletes training to compete in the Olympics may feel unique situational pressure, which may in turn induce powerful motivation for doping and predict doping behavior. This study aimed to investigate possible factors associated with attitudes towards doping in Korean national athletes who competed in the Rio 2016 Olympic Games.

Concepts: United States, Olympic Games, Summer Olympic Games, Ancient Olympic Games, 2012 Summer Olympics, 2016 Summer Olympics, 1968 Summer Olympics, 2020 Summer Olympics