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Concept: 2003 Cricket World Cup

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The research objective was to test the hypothesis that corporate health and wellness contributed positively to South African companies' financial results.

Concepts: Human, Africa, Black people, South Africa, Overseas Chinese, African Union, Zimbabwe, 2003 Cricket World Cup

28

Skin-lightening products are commonly used by black communities in South Africa and worldwide. This practice has deep historical and cultural roots and is associated with adverse cutaneous effects.

Concepts: Africa, Black people, South Africa, White people, African American, Overseas Chinese, African Union, 2003 Cricket World Cup

28

To determine the frequency and content of food-related television (TV) advertisements shown on South African TV.

Concepts: Africa, Black people, South Africa, Overseas Chinese, Radio, African Union, Zimbabwe, 2003 Cricket World Cup

11

South Africa faces an epidemic of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs), yet national surveillance is limited due to the lack of recent data. We used data from the first comprehensive national survey on NCDs-the South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (SANHANES-1 (2011-2012))-to evaluate the prevalence of and health system response to diabetes through a diabetes care cascade. We defined diabetes as a Hemoglobin A1c equal to or above 6.5% or currently on treatment for diabetes. We constructed a diabetes care cascade by categorizing the population with diabetes into those who were unscreened, screened but undiagnosed, diagnosed but untreated, treated but uncontrolled, and treated and controlled. We then used multivariable logistic regression models to explore factors associated with diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes. The age-standardized prevalence of diabetes in South Africans aged 15+ was 10.1%. Prevalence rates were higher among the non-white population and among women. Among individuals with diabetes, a total of 45.4% were unscreened, 14.7% were screened but undiagnosed, 2.3% were diagnosed but untreated, 18.1% were treated but uncontrolled, and 19.4% were treated and controlled, suggesting that 80.6% of the diabetic population had unmet need for care. The diabetes care cascade revealed significant losses from lack of screening, between screening and diagnosis, and between treatment and control. These results point to significant unmet need for diabetes care in South Africa. Additionally, this analysis provides a benchmark for evaluating efforts to manage the rising burden of diabetes in South Africa.

Concepts: Diabetes mellitus, Africa, Petroleum, South Africa, African Union, 2003 Cricket World Cup

10

Rates of obesity and overweight among South Africans are increasing. Food marketing has a profound impact on children and affects their lifelong eating patterns; in urban areas of South Africa, disposable incomes are growing and ultra-processed food is increasingly available at low cost. The combination of these factors will strain an already fragile health system. Our aim was to investigate the density of outdoor sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) advertising and the number of formal and informal vendors selling SSBs in a transforming, historically disadvantaged urban setting of South Africa.

Concepts: Nutrition, Africa, South Africa, Dieting, Marketing, Overseas Chinese, Food and drink, 2003 Cricket World Cup

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Death is the most extreme consequence of intimate partner violence. Female homicide studies with data on the perpetrator-victim relationship can provide insights. We compare the results of two South African national studies of female homicide with similar sampling done 10 y apart.

Concepts: Domestic violence, Africa, Black people, South Africa, Overseas Chinese, African Union, 2003 Cricket World Cup, Jazz

6

The prevalence of obesity in South Africa has risen sharply, as has the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Research shows that consumption of SSBs leads to weight gain in both adults and children, and reducing SSBs will significantly impact the prevalence of obesity and its related diseases. We estimated the effect of a 20% tax on SSBs on the prevalence of and obesity among adults in South Africa.

Concepts: HIV, AIDS, Mathematics, Africa, South Africa, Overseas Chinese, African Union, 2003 Cricket World Cup

2

BACKGROUND: The demand for nurses is growing and has not yet been met in most developing countries, including India, Kenya, South Africa, and Thailand. Efforts to increase the capacity for production of professional nurses, equitable distribution and better retention have been given high strategic priority. This study examines the supply of, demand for, and policy environment of private nurse production in four selected countries. METHODS: A scoping systematic review was undertaken to assess the evidence for the role of private sector involvement in the production of nurses in India, Kenya, South Africa, and Thailand. An electronic database search was performed, and grey literature was also captured from the websites of Human Resources for Health (HRH)-related organizations and networks. The articles were reviewed and selected according to relevancy. RESULTS: The review found that despite very different ratios of nurses to population ratios and differing degrees of international migration, there was a nursing shortage in all four countries which were struggling to meet growing demand. All four countries saw the private sector play an increasing role in nurse production. Policy responses varied from modifying regulation and accreditation schemes in Thailand, to easing regulation to speed up nurse production and recruitment in India. There were concerns about the quality of nurses being produced in private institutions. CONCLUSION: Strategies must be devised to ensure that private nursing graduates serve public health needs of their populations. There must be policy coherence between producing nurses for export and ensuring sufficient supply to meet domestic needs, in particular in under-served areas. This study points to the need for further research in particular assessing the contributions made by the private sector to nurse production, and to examine the variance in quality of nurses produced.

Concepts: Africa, Nursing, Nurse, Florence Nightingale, International Monetary Fund, Nursing shortage, 2003 Cricket World Cup, Countries of the Indian Ocean

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Primary health care (PHC) outreach teams are part of a policy of PHC re-engineering in South Africa. It attempts to move the deployment of community health workers (CHWs) from vertical programmes into an integrated generalised team-based approach to care for defined populations in municipal wards. There has little evaluation of PHC outreach teams. Managers' insights are anecdotal.

Concepts: Health care, Health care provider, Healthcare, Focus group, South Africa, Policy, Alliance for Healthy Cities, 2003 Cricket World Cup