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Concept: 2001


Since their introduction in 2001 miniaturized bioreactor systems have made great advances in function and performance. In this paper the dissolved oxygen (DO) transfer performance of sub millilitre microbioreactors, and 1 to 10 mL minibioreactors was examined. Microbioreactors have reached k(L) a values of 460 hr(-1) , and are offering instrumentation and some functionality comparable to production systems, but at high throughput screening volumes. Minibioreactors, aside from one 1440 hr(-1) k(L) a system, have not offered as high rates of DO transfer, but have demonstrated superior integration with automated fluid handling systems. Microbioreactors have been typically limited to studies with E. coli, while minibioreactors have offered greater versatility in this regard. Further, mathematical relationships confirming the applicability of k(L) a measurements across all scales have been derived, and alternatives to fluorescence lifetime DO sensors have been evaluated. Finally, the influence on reactor performance of oxygen uptake rate (OUR), and the possibility of its real time measurement have been explored. Biotechnol. Bioeng. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Concepts: Time, Fluorescence, Oxygen, Function, Measurement, Biotechnology, 2001


Multiple chronic health conditions have been associated with exposure to the September 11, 2001 World Trade Center (WTC) terrorist attacks (9/11). We assessed whether excess deaths occurred during 2003-2014 among persons directly exposed to 9/11, and examined associations of 9/11-related exposures with mortality risk.

Concepts: 2001, September 11 attacks, September 11, World Trade Center, Lower Manhattan, United 93, 7 World Trade Center, World Trade Center site


Infantile colic is a common disorder, affecting around one in six families, and in 2001 was reported to cost the UK National Health Service in excess of £65 million per year (Morris 2001). Although it usually remits by six months of age, there is some evidence of longer-term sequelae for both children and parents.Manipulative therapies, such as chiropractic and osteopathy, have been suggested as interventions to reduce the severity of symptoms.

Concepts: Health care, Medicine, Economics, United Kingdom, National Health Service, England, English language, 2001


To describe the characteristics and management of individuals attending hospital with self-harm and assess changes in management and service quality since an earlier study in 2001, a period in which national guidance has been available.

Concepts: 2001


To estimate associations between exposure to the events of September 11, 2001, (9/11) and low birth weight (LBW), preterm delivery (PD), and small size for gestational age (SGA).

Concepts: Obstetrics, New York City, 2001, September 11 attacks, World Trade Center, Empire State Building, Lower Manhattan, Port Authority Trans-Hudson


Adolescents are particularly vulnerable to engaging in poor skin-protection behaviors. The objective of this study was to examine use of sunscreen and indoor tanning devices among a nationally representative sample of high school students during a 10-year period (2001-2011) using data from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. The percentage of youth who reported using sunscreen declined from 67.7% in 2001 to 56.1% in 2011. The prevalence of using indoor tanning devices was highest among white females: 37.4% in 2009 and 29.3% in 2011. These findings indicate the need for prevention efforts aimed at adolescents to reduce risks for skin cancer.

Concepts: Psychology, Risk, High school, Behavior, Skin cancer, 1922, 2001


Spatial patterns of Zn, Pb and Cd deposition in Cape Krusenstern National Monument (CAKR), Alaska, adjacent to the Red Dog Mine haul road, were characterized in 2001 and 2006 using Hylocomium moss tissue as a biomonitor. Elevated concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Zn in moss tissue decreased logarithmically away from the haul road and the marine port. The metals concentrations in the two years were compared using Bayesian posterior predictions on a new sampling grid to which both data sets were fit. Posterior predictions were simulated 200 times both on a coarse grid of 2,357 points and by distance-based strata including subsets of these points. Compared to 2001, Zn and Pb concentrations in 2006 were 31 to 54% lower in the 3 sampling strata closest to the haul road (0-100, 100-2000 and 2000-4000 m). Pb decreased by 40% in the stratum 4,000-5,000 m from the haul road. Cd decreased significantly by 38% immediately adjacent to the road (0-100m), had an 89% probability of a small decrease 100-2000 m from the road, and showed moderate probabilities (56-71%) for increase at greater distances. There was no significant change over time (with probabilities all ≤ 85%) for any of the 3 elements in more distant reference areas (40-60 km). As in 2001, elemental concentrations in 2006 were higher on the north side of the road. Reductions in deposition have followed a large investment in infrastructure to control fugitive dust escapement at the mine and port sites, operational controls, and road dust mitigation. Fugitive dust escapement, while much reduced, is still resulting in elevated concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd out to 5,000 m from the haul road. Zn and Pb levels were slightly above arctic baseline values in southern CAKR reference areas.

Concepts: Probability, Geology, Heavy metal music, Dust, 2001, The Road, Stratum, National Park Service


Little is known about the direction of causality among asthma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and onset of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms (GERS) after exposure to the 9/11/2001 World Trade Center (WTC) disaster.

Concepts: Gastroesophageal reflux disease, Cognitive behavioral therapy, 2001, September 11 attacks, World Trade Center, Lower Manhattan, United 93, 7 World Trade Center


Although airborne respiratory irritants at the World Trade Center (WTC) site have been associated with asthma among WTC Ground Zero workers, little is known about asthma associated with work at the Staten Island landfill or barges.

Concepts: New York City, 2001, September 11 attacks, World Trade Center, Manhattan, Staten Island, Fresh Kills Landfill, Fresh Kills


In 2001, less than 20% of emergency medicine residents had more than $150,000 of educational debt. Our emergency medicine residents anecdotally reported much larger debt loads. Surveys have reported that debt affects career and life choices. Qualitative approaches are well suited to explore how and why such complex phenomena occur. We aim to gain a better understanding of how our emergency medicine residents experience debt.

Concepts: Psychology, Educational psychology, Qualitative research, 2001