SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: 2000 albums

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Middle adolescents' close friendship strength and the degree to which their broader peer group expressed a preference to affiliate with them were examined as predictors of relative change in depressive symptoms, self-worth, and social anxiety symptoms from ages 15 to 25 using multimethod, longitudinal data from 169 adolescents. Close friendship strength in midadolescence predicted relative increases in self-worth and decreases in anxiety and depressive symptoms by early adulthood. Affiliation preference by the broader peer group, in contrast, predicted higher social anxiety by early adulthood. Results are interpreted as suggesting that adolescents who prioritize forming close friendships are better situated to manage key social developmental tasks going forward than adolescents who prioritize attaining preference with many others in their peer milieu.

Concepts: Anxiety, Psychology, Sociology, Adolescence, Adult, Friendship, Adulthood, 2000 albums

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The aim of this study was to determine if month of birth affects performance in 3 tests of physical function in children and adolescents. We measured cardiorespiratory fitness, handgrip strength and lower-body power expressed them relative to (whole year) age then compared scores between calendar year birth-months. We also expressed test performance as the likelihood of achieving criterion-referenced fitness standards. There were significant main effects of birth-month for cardiorespiratory fitness (F=4.54, p<0.001), strength (F=6.81, p<0.001) and power (F=3.67, p<0.001). Children born in November were fitter and more powerful than those born at other times, particularly the summer months (April, May and June). October-born children were stronger than those born in all months except September and November. This relationship was evident despite controlling for decimal age and despite no significant inter-month differences in anthropometric characteristics.There is a clear physical advantage for those born in the autumn and this may explain some of the bias in sports selection attributed to the relative age effect, particularly when the British school-year (September) cut-off is used.

Concepts: Scientific method, Critical thinking, Effect, Affect, Test method, Summer, Philosophical terminology, 2000 albums

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In addressing the very general question of what we should expect from psychotherapy, this article begins by discussing what constitutes relevant evidence on which to base the efficacy and effectiveness of psychotherapy. In this context, an important distinction is made between empirically supported treatments and evidence-based practice. Although there is evidence that psychotherapy does indeed work, there are also findings that there are times when our patients are harmed by our interventions. It is noted that the therapeutic alliance plays an extremely important role in the change process, and that ruptures in the alliance can contribute to our therapeutic failures. In pointing to directions for the future, modifications of how we investigate the outcome of treatment, as well as how to close the gap between research and practice, are offered.

Concepts: Time, Randomized controlled trial, 2000 albums

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: Research has demonstrated a clear relationship between absolute and relative strength and sprint and jump performance in adult athletes; however, this relationship in younger athletes has been less extensively studied. The aim of this study, therefore, was to determine the relationships between strength, sprint and jump performances in well trained youth soccer players. Thirty four young male soccer players (17.2 ± 0.6 years, body mass 72.62 ± 7.42 kg; height 179.27 ± 6.58 cm) performed a predicted maximal squat test, twenty metre sprints, squat jumps and countermovement jumps. Absolute strength showed the strongest correlations with 5m sprint times (r -0.596, p<0.001, power = 0.99), squat jump height (r 0.762, p<0.001, power = 1.00) and CMJ height (r 0.760, p<0.001, power = 1.00), whereas relative strength demonstrated the strongest correlation with 20m sprint times (r -0.672, p<0.001, power = 0.99). The results of this study illustrates the importance of developing high levels of lower body strength in order to enhance sprint and jump performance in youth soccer players, with stronger athletes demonstrating superior sprint and jump performances.

Concepts: Mass, Demonstration, Performance, Performing arts, Busking, Sprint Nextel, 2000 albums, Jump

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When do people decide to do something about problematic health behaviours? Theoretical models and pragmatic considerations suggest that people should take action when they feel bad about their progress - in other words, when they experience negative progress-related affect. However, the impact of progress-related affect on goal striving has rarely been investigated.

Concepts: Psychology, Motivation, Emotion, Feeling, 2000 albums

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Tissue growth is the multifaceted outcome of a cell’s intrinsic capabilities and its interactions with the surrounding environment. Decoding these complexities is essential for understanding human development and tumorigenesis. Here we tackle this problem by carrying out the first genome-wide RNA-interference-mediated screens in mice. Focusing on skin development and oncogenic (Hras(G12V)-induced) hyperplasia, our screens uncover previously unknown as well as anticipated regulators of embryonic epidermal growth. Among the top oncogenic screen hits are Mllt6 and the Wnt effector β-catenin, which maintain Hras(G12V)-dependent hyperproliferation. We also expose β-catenin as an unanticipated antagonist of normal epidermal growth, functioning through Wnt-independent intercellular adhesion. Finally, we validate functional significance in mouse and human cancers, thereby establishing the feasibility of in vivo mammalian genome-wide investigations to dissect tissue development and tumorigenesis. By documenting some oncogenic growth regulators, we pave the way for future investigations of other hits and raise promise for unearthing new targets for cancer therapies.

Concepts: Cancer, Human, Skin, Developmental psychology, Murinae, Mouse, 2000 albums

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We propose that the experience of state authenticity-the subjective sense of being one’s true self-ought to be considered separately from trait authenticity as well as from prescriptions regarding what should make people feel authentic.

Concepts: 2000 albums

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In recent years several different fields, such as ecology, medicine and microbiology, have experienced an unprecedented development due to the possibility of direct sequencing of microbioimic samples. Among problems that researchers in the field have to deal with, taxonomic classification of metagenomic reads is one of the most challenging. State of the art methods classify single reads with almost 100% precision. However, very often, the performance in terms of recall falls at about 50%. As a consequence, state-of-the-art methods are indeed capable of correctly classify only half of the reads in the sample. How to achieve better performances in terms of overall quality of classification remains a largely unsolved problem.

Concepts: Taxonomy, Field, Taxonomic rank, Biological classification, 2000 albums

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China launched its second health reform in 2010 with considerable investments in medical informatics (MI). However, to the best of our knowledge, research on the outcomes of this ambitious undertaking has been limited.

Concepts: Health care, Universal health care, United States, U.S. state, World War II, Community college, Economy of the People's Republic of China, 2000 albums