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Concept: 1990s


Background The prevalence of dementia is expected to soar as the average life expectancy increases, but recent estimates suggest that the age-specific incidence of dementia is declining in high-income countries. Temporal trends are best derived through continuous monitoring of a population over a long period with the use of consistent diagnostic criteria. We describe temporal trends in the incidence of dementia over three decades among participants in the Framingham Heart Study. Methods Participants in the Framingham Heart Study have been under surveillance for incident dementia since 1975. In this analysis, which included 5205 persons 60 years of age or older, we used Cox proportional-hazards models adjusted for age and sex to determine the 5-year incidence of dementia during each of four epochs. We also explored the interactions between epoch and age, sex, apolipoprotein E ε4 status, and educational level, and we examined the effects of these interactions, as well as the effects of vascular risk factors and cardiovascular disease, on temporal trends. Results The 5-year age- and sex-adjusted cumulative hazard rates for dementia were 3.6 per 100 persons during the first epoch (late 1970s and early 1980s), 2.8 per 100 persons during the second epoch (late 1980s and early 1990s), 2.2 per 100 persons during the third epoch (late 1990s and early 2000s), and 2.0 per 100 persons during the fourth epoch (late 2000s and early 2010s). Relative to the incidence during the first epoch, the incidence declined by 22%, 38%, and 44% during the second, third, and fourth epochs, respectively. This risk reduction was observed only among persons who had at least a high school diploma (hazard ratio, 0.77; 95% confidence interval, 0.67 to 0.88). The prevalence of most vascular risk factors (except obesity and diabetes) and the risk of dementia associated with stroke, atrial fibrillation, or heart failure have decreased over time, but none of these trends completely explain the decrease in the incidence of dementia. Conclusions Among participants in the Framingham Heart Study, the incidence of dementia has declined over the course of three decades. The factors contributing to this decline have not been completely identified. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health.).

Concepts: Epidemiology, Medical statistics, Risk, Stroke, Atrial fibrillation, Life expectancy, 1990s, Framingham, Massachusetts


It is widely accepted that the main driver of the observed decline in biological diversity is increasing human pressure on Earth’s ecosystems. However, the spatial patterns of change in human pressure and their relation to conservation efforts are less well known. We developed a spatially and temporally explicit map of global change in human pressure over 2 decades between 1990 and 2010 at a resolution of 10 km(2) . We evaluated 22 spatial data sets representing different components of human pressure and used them to compile a temporal human pressure index (THPI) based on 3 data sets: human population density, land transformation, and electrical power infrastructure. We investigated how the THPI within protected areas was correlated to International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) management categories and the human development index (HDI) and how the THPI was correlated to cumulative pressure on the basis of the original human footprint index. Since the early 1990s, human pressure increased 64% of the terrestrial areas; the largest increases were in Southeast Asia. Protected areas also exhibited overall increases in human pressure, the degree of which varied with location and IUCN management category. Only wilderness areas and natural monuments (management categories Ib and III) exhibited decreases in pressure. Protected areas not assigned any category exhibited the greatest increases. High HDI values correlated with greater reductions in pressure across protected areas, while increasing age of the protected area correlated with increases in pressure. Our analysis is an initial step toward mapping changes in human pressure on the natural world over time. That only 3 data sets could be included in our spatio-temporal global pressure map highlights the challenge to measuring pressure changes over time. Mapeo del Cambio en la Presión Humana Global en Tierra y Dentro de Áreas Protegidas.

Concepts: Natural environment, Developed country, Population density, Nature, Category theory, 1990s, Human Development Index, American Human Development Report


Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is the ultimate technique for measuring rare isotopes in small samples. Biological and biomedical applications of (14)C-AMS (bio-(14)C-AMS) commenced in the early 1990s and are now widely used in many research fields including pharmacology, toxicology, food, and nutrition. For accurate, precise, and reproducible bio-(14)C-AMS analysis, the graphitization step in sample preparation is the most critical step. So, various sample preparation methods for a process called graphitization have been reported for specific applications. Catalytic graphitization using either a flame-sealed borosilicate tube or a septa-sealed vial is a popular sample preparation method for bio-(14)C-AMS. In this review, we introduce the AMS system, especially for bio-(14)C-AMS. In addition, we also review the graphitization method for bio-(14)C-AMS to promote further understanding and improvement of sample preparation for this technique. Examples of catalytic graphitization methods over the past two decades are described.

Concepts: Sample, Spectroscopy, Mass spectrometry, Accuracy and precision, 1990s, 1990s music groups, Accelerator mass spectrometry


Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) are colloidal drug carrier systems that contribute several properties required from a sophisticated drug delivery system for increasing drug bioavailability and providing effective therapy. Many advantages of SLN have been reported over traditional dosage forms and their colloidal counterparts in the studies since the early 1990s. They were optimized for oral drug delivery for the first time. The first SLN formulations were produced by reducing the particle size of solid lipid microparticles by spray congealing technique in the late 1980s. Then, studies have been continued investigating for their different administration routes else including parenteral, transdermal, ocular, nasal, respiratory etc.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Nanoparticle, Therapy, Sol-gel, Route of administration, 1990s, Instant messaging, Kylie Minogue


The rate of twin births in the United States has risen 76% from 1980 through 2009-2011. The rate of rise was particularly steep from the early 1990s through the early 2000s and seems to have reached a plateau of approximately 33.2 twin births per 1000 deliveries in the period from 2009 through 2011.(1) The incidence of naturally occurring twin pregnancy rises with increasing maternal age, and the age of women having babies in the United States has risen steadily from 20% of all births among women 30 years of age or older in 1980 to more than 35% for the . . .

Concepts: Pregnancy, Childbirth, Infant, United States, Breastfeeding, Twin, 1990s, 2000s


We examined whether culture-level indices of threat, instability, and materialistic modeling were linked to the materialistic values of American 12th graders between 1976 and 2007 (N = 355,296). Youth materialism (such as the importance of money and of owning expensive material items) increased over the generations, peaking in the late 1980s to early 1990s with Generation X and then staying at historically high levels for Millennials (GenMe). Societal instability and disconnection (e.g., unemployment, divorce) and social modeling (e.g., advertising spending) had both contemporaneous and lagged associations with higher levels of materialism, with advertising most influential during adolescence and instability during childhood. Societal-level living standards during childhood predicted materialism 10 years later. When materialistic values increased, work centrality steadily declined, suggesting a growing discrepancy between the desire for material rewards and the willingness to do the work usually required to earn them.

Concepts: Sociology, The Work, 1990s, Generation Y, Materialism, Generation, Generation X, Kylie Minogue


BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality in Kenya increased from 380/100000 live births to 530/100000 live births between 1990 and 2008. Skilled assistance during childbirth is central to reducing maternal mortality yet the proportion of deliveries taking place in health facilities where such assistance can reliably be provided has remained below 50% since the early 1990s. We use the 2008/2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey data to describe the factors that determine where women deliver in Kenya and to explore reasons given for home delivery. METHODS: Data on place of delivery, reasons for home delivery, and a range of potential explanatory factors were collected by interviewer-led questionnaire on 3977 women and augmented with distance from the nearest health facility estimated using health facility Global Positioning System (GPS) co-ordinates. Predictors of whether the woman’s most recent delivery was in a health facility were explored in an exploratory risk factor analysis using multiple logistic regression. The main reasons given by the woman for home delivery were also examined. RESULTS: Living in urban areas, being wealthy, more educated, using antenatal care services optimally and lower parity strongly predicted where women delivered, and so did region, ethnicity, and type of facilities used. Wealth and rural/urban residence were independently related. The effect of distance from a health facility was not significant after controlling for other variables. Women most commonly cited distance and/or lack of transport as reasons for not delivering in a health facility but over 60% gave other reasons including 20.5% who considered health facility delivery unnecessary, 18% who cited abrupt delivery as the main reason and 11% who cited high cost. CONCLUSION: Physical access to health facilities through distance and/or lack of transport, and economic considerations are important barriers for women to delivering in a health facility in Kenya. Some women do not perceive a need to deliver in a health facility and may value health facility delivery less with subsequent deliveries. Access to appropriate transport for mothers in labour and improving the experiences and outcomes for mothers using health facilities at childbirth augmented by health education may increase uptake of health facility delivery in Kenya.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Childbirth, Demography, Obstetrics, Factor analysis, Woman, Global Positioning System, 1990s


The existence of BRCA1 was proven in 1990 by mapping predisposition to young-onset breast cancer in families to chromosome 17q21. Knowing that such a gene existed and approximately where it lay triggered efforts by public and private groups to clone and sequence it. The press baptized the competition “the race” and reported on it in detail for the next 4 years. BRCA1 was positionally cloned in September 1994. Twenty years later, I reflect on “the race” and its consequences for breast cancer prevention and treatment.

Concepts: Cancer, Breast cancer, Metastasis, Life, BRCA2, BRCA1, Cloning, 1990s


The potential health impacts of imposing large taxes on soda to improve population health have been of interest for over a decade. As estimates of the effects of existing soda taxes with low rates suggest little health improvements, recent proposals suggest that large taxes may be effective in reducing weight because of non-linear consumption responses or threshold effects. This paper tests this hypothesis in two ways. First, we estimate non-linear effects of taxes using the range of current rates. Second, we leverage the sudden, relatively large soda tax increase in two states during the early 1990s combined with new synthetic control methods useful for comparative case studies. Our findings suggest virtually no evidence of non-linear or threshold effects. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Concepts: Scientific method, Health, Improve, Demography, Case study, John Wiley & Sons, 1990s, Tax


Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition, an important component in the global N cycle, has increased sharply in recent decades in China. Here, we constructed national-scale inorganic N wet deposition (Ndep) patterns in China based on data from 280 observational sites and analysed the effects of anthropogenic sources and precipitation on Ndep. Our results showed that the mean Ndep over China increased approximately 25%, from 11.11 kg ha(-1) a(-1) in the 1990s to 13.87 in the 2000s. Ndep was highest over southern China and exhibited a decreasing gradient from southern to western and northern China. The decadal difference in Ndep between the 1990s and 2000s was primarily caused by increases in energy consumption and N fertiliser use. Our findings conformed that anthropogenic activities were the main reason for the Ndep increase and provide a scientific background for studies on ecological effects of N deposition in China.

Concepts: Scientific method, Fertilizer, China, Nitrogen, Nitrogen fixation, 1990s, Anthropogenic, Nitrogen cycle