Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: 1990s music groups


The assessment of body hydration is a complex process, and no measurement is valid for all situations. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) has emerged as a relatively novel technique for assessing hydration status in sports. We applied BIVA a) to determine hydration changes evoked by an intense synchronized swimming (SS) training session; b) to characterize the sample of young elite swimmers in relation with a nonathletic reference population; and c) to generate its 50%, 75% and 95% percentiles of the bioelectrical variables.

Concepts: Measurement, Psychometrics, Hilbert space, 2000s music groups, Complex number, 1990s music groups, Swimming, Synchronized swimming


Electronic cigarettes (EC) deliver aerosol by heating fluid containing nicotine. Cartomizer EC combine the fluid chamber and heating element in a single unit. Because EC do not burn tobacco, they may be safer than conventional cigarettes. Their use is rapidly increasing worldwide with little prior testing of their aerosol.

Concepts: Smoking, Tobacco, Cigarette, Nicotine, Cigar, Electronic cigarette, 1990s music groups, Cigarettes


Recent studies documented significantly higher concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in settled house dust in living spaces adjacent to parking lots sealed with coal-tar-based products, as well as in nearby soil. To date, no studies have examined the potential human health effects of PAHs from these products in dust and soil. Here we present the results of an analysis of potential cancer risk associated with incidental ingestion exposures to PAHs in settings near coal-tar-sealed pavement. Exposures to benzo[a]pyrene equivalents were characterized across five scenarios. Deterministic and probabilistic methods were used to calculate excess lifetime cancer risk arising from exposures to PAHs in house dust, soil, and both media. The central tendency estimate of excess cancer risk resulting from lifetime exposures to soil and dust via non-dietary ingestion in these settings exceeded 1 * 10-4 in both deterministic and probabilistic estimates. Soil was the primary driver of risk, but according to probabilistic calculations, reasonable maximum exposure to affected house dust in the first 6 years of life was sufficient to generate risk in excess of 1 * 10-4. Our results indicate that the presence of coal-tar-based pavement sealants is associated with significant increases in estimated excess lifetime cancer risk for nearby residents. Much of this calculated excess risk arises from exposures to PAHs in childhood (i.e., ages 0-6).

Concepts: Mathematics, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Benzene, Aromatic hydrocarbon, Aromaticity, 1990s music groups, Dust, Naphthalene


Research with younger couples indicates that alcohol use has powerful effects on marital quality, but less work has examined the effects of drinking among older couples. This study examined whether dyadic patterns of drinking status among older couples are associated with negative marital quality over time.

Concepts: Sociology, Drinking culture, 1990s music groups


Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is the ultimate technique for measuring rare isotopes in small samples. Biological and biomedical applications of (14)C-AMS (bio-(14)C-AMS) commenced in the early 1990s and are now widely used in many research fields including pharmacology, toxicology, food, and nutrition. For accurate, precise, and reproducible bio-(14)C-AMS analysis, the graphitization step in sample preparation is the most critical step. So, various sample preparation methods for a process called graphitization have been reported for specific applications. Catalytic graphitization using either a flame-sealed borosilicate tube or a septa-sealed vial is a popular sample preparation method for bio-(14)C-AMS. In this review, we introduce the AMS system, especially for bio-(14)C-AMS. In addition, we also review the graphitization method for bio-(14)C-AMS to promote further understanding and improvement of sample preparation for this technique. Examples of catalytic graphitization methods over the past two decades are described.

Concepts: Sample, Spectroscopy, Mass spectrometry, Accuracy and precision, 1990s, 1990s music groups, Accelerator mass spectrometry


As neonatal care is being scaled up in economically poor settings, there is a need to know more on post-hospital discharge and longer-term outcomes. Of particular interest are mortality, prevalence of developmental impairments and malnutrition, all known to be worse in low-birth-weight neonates (LBW, <2500 grams). Getting a better handle on these parameters might justify and guide support interventions. Two years after hospital discharge, we thus assessed: mortality, developmental impairments, and nutritional status of LBW children.

Concepts: Childbirth, Milk, Pediatrics, Child development, 1990s music groups


We analyzed two nationally representative, longitudinal data sets of U.S. children to identify risk factors for persistent mathematics difficulties (PMD). Results indicated that children from low socioeconomic households are at elevated risk of PMD at 48 and 60 months of age, as are children with cognitive delays, identified developmental delays or disabilities, and vocabulary difficulties. In contrast, children attending preschool either in Head Start or non-Head Start classrooms are at initially lower risk of PMD. Kindergarten-aged children experiencing either low socioeconomic status or mathematics difficulties are at greatest risk for PMD across third, fifth, and eighth grades. Also at risk for PMD between third and eighth grades are children displaying reading difficulties or inattention and other learning-related behaviors problems, children with identified disabilities, and those who are retained. Educationally relevant and potentially malleable factors for decreasing young children’s risk for PMD may include increasing children’s access to preschool, decreasing their risk of experiencing vocabulary or reading difficulties, and avoiding use of grade retention.

Concepts: Psychology, United States, Socioeconomic status, Sociology, Educational psychology, Order theory, 1990s music groups


It is early days in the creation of a science of patient input. Participants are establishing rigorous methods to better integrate patient perspectives, needs, and priorities throughout biomedical and bioengineering R&D and care delivery to patients. To assess progress and unmet needs, FasterCures tracked more than 70 collaborative initiatives clustered in six categories that are defining and shaping this developing field. No longer is patient engagement a fanciful notion as it was at the start of our journey in 2003, and the rush of activity is welcome and vital.

Concepts: Patient, TheStart, 1990s music groups, Stephen Jay Gould, The Creation of Adam, Welcome


The work presents a template-free electrochemical route to producing superhydrophobic copper coatings with the water contact angle of 160º ± 6° and contact angle hysteresis of 5° ± 2°. In this technique, copper deposit with multiscale surface features is formed through a two-step electrodeposition process in a concentrated copper sulfate bath. In the first step, applying a high overpotential results in the formation of structures with dense-branching morphology, which are loosely attached to the surface. In the second step, an additional thin layer of the deposit is formed by applying a low overpotential for a short time, which is used to reinforce the loosely attached branches on the surface. The work also presents a theoretical analysis of the effects of the fabrication parameters on the surface textures that cause the superhydrophobic characteristic of the deposit.

Concepts: Surface, Sulfuric acid, Angle, Hysteresis, Differential geometry, Contact angle, The Work, 1990s music groups


Individuals who work nonstandard schedules, such as rotating or night shifts, are more susceptible to workplace injuries, performance decrements, and reduced productivity. This population is also almost twice as likely to use illicit drugs as individuals working a standard day shift. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of smoked marijuana on performance, mood, and sleep during simulated shift work. Ten experienced marijuana smokers completed this 23-day, within-participant residential study. They smoked a single marijuana cigarette (0, 1.9, 3.56% Δ(9)-THC) one hour after waking for three consecutive days under two shift conditions: day shift and night shift. Shifts alternated three times during the study, and shift conditions were separated by an ‘off’ day. When participants smoked placebo cigarettes, psychomotor performance and subjective-effect ratings were altered during the night shift compared to the day shift: performance (e.g., vigilance) and a few subjective ratings were decreased (e.g., “Self-Confident”), whereas other ratings were increased (e.g., “Tired”). Objective and subjective measures of sleep were also disrupted, but to a lesser extent. Marijuana attenuated some performance, mood, and sleep disruptions: participants performed better on vigilance tasks, reported being less miserable and tired and sleep a greater number of minutes. Limited negative effects of marijuana were noted. These data demonstrate that abrupt shift changes produce performance, mood, and sleep decrements during night shift work and that smoked marijuana containing low to moderate Δ(9)-THC concentrations can offset some of these effects in frequent marijuana smokers.

Concepts: Cigarette, Performance, Employment, Shift work, 1990s music groups, Cigarettes