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Concept: 1940


We estimated rates of “absolute income mobility”-the fraction of children who earn more than their parents-by combining data from U.S. Census and Current Population Survey cross sections with panel data from de-identified tax records. We found that rates of absolute mobility have fallen from approximately 90% for children born in 1940 to 50% for children born in the 1980s. Increasing GDP growth rates alone cannot restore absolute mobility to the rates experienced by children born in the 1940s. However, distributing current GDP growth more equally across income groups as in the 1940 birth cohort would reverse more than 70% of the decline in mobility. These results imply that reviving the “American dream” of high rates of absolute mobility would require economic growth that is shared more broadly across the income distribution.

Concepts: Economics, Gross domestic product, Economic inequality, Economic growth, Welfare economics, United States Census Bureau, 1940, Uneconomic growth


Purpose:On 14 May 2013, actress Angelina Jolie disclosed that she had a BRCA1 mutation and underwent a prophylactic bilateral mastectomy. This study documents the impact of her disclosure on information-seeking behavior, specifically that regarding online genetics and risk reduction resources available from the National Cancer Institute.Methods:Using Adobe Analytics, daily page views for 11 resources were tracked from 23 April 2013 through 25 June 2013. Usage data were also obtained for four resources over a 2-year period (2012-2013). Source of referral that viewers used to locate a specific resource was also examined.Results:There was a dramatic and immediate increase in traffic to the National Cancer Institute’s online resources. The Preventive Mastectomy fact sheet received 69,225 page views on May 14, representing a 795-fold increase as compared with the previous Tuesday. A fivefold increase in page views was observed for the PDQ Genetics of Breast and Ovarian Cancer summary in the same time frame. A substantial increase, from 0 to 49%, was seen in referrals from news outlets to four resources from 7 May to 14 May.Conclusion:Celebrity disclosures can dramatically influence online information-seeking behaviors. Efforts to capitalize on these disclosures to ensure easy access to accurate information are warranted.Genet Med advance online publication 23 October 2014Genetics in Medicine (2014); doi:10.1038/gim.2014.141.

Concepts: Cancer, Mutation, National Cancer Institute, Academy Award for Best Actress, 1983, 1940, 1984, Angelina Jolie


The genus level diagnostic characters of Acanthosoma Curtis, 1824, Anaxandra Stål, 1876, and Sastragala Amyot & Serville, 1843 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Acanthosomatidae) are discussed. The synonymy of Acanthosoma and Anaxandra proposed by Kumar (1974) is supported. Acanthosoma and Sastragala are redefined and recognized as valid genera. The identities of various species of Acanthosoma are clarified based on their type materials, their diagnostic characters are discussed and several misidentifications in previous works are corrected. The following new or reinstated combinations and new subjective synonymies are proposed: Acanthosoma haemorrhoidale haemorrhoidale (Linnaeus, 1758) = Acanthosoma proximum Dallas, 1851, syn. nov. = Acanthosoma difficile Dallas, 1851, syn. nov. = Acanthosoma dubium Dallas, 1851, syn. nov.; Acanthosoma firmatum (Walker, 1868), comb. nov. (transferred from Sastragala) = Acanthosoma giganteum Matsumura, 1913, syn. nov.; Acanthosoma murreanum (Distant, 1900), comb. nov. (transferred from Sastragala) = Acanthosoma acutangulata Liu, 1979, syn. nov. = Sastragala neoelongata Ahmad & Moizuddin, 1990, syn. nov.; Acanthosoma rufispinum (Distant, 1887), comb. nov. (transferred from Sastragala) = Sastragala minuta Ahmad & Moizuddin, 1990, syn. nov.; Acanthosoma tauriforme (Distant, 1887) = Anaxandra longispina Liu, 1987, syn. nov.; Acanthosoma hampsoni (Distant, 1900), comb. nov. (transferred from Sastragala); Acanthosoma labiduroides Jakovlev, 1880 = Acanthosoma coralliferum Horváth, 1889, syn. nov. = Acanthosoma zanthoxylum Hsiao & Liu, 1977, syn. nov.; Acanthosoma forfex Dallas, 1851 = Acanthosoma distinctum Dallas, 1851, syn. nov.; Acanthosoma rufescens Dallas, 1851, comb. restit. = Acanthosoma elongatum Dallas, 1851, syn. nov. = Anaxandra hamata Reuter, 1881, syn. nov.; Acanthosoma nigricorne Walker, 1868 = Acanthosoma nigrospina Hsiao & Liu, 1977, syn. nov.; Acanthosoma alaticorne Walker, 1868, comb. restit. = Anaxandra laticollis Hsiao & Liu, 1977, syn. nov. New combinations resulting from synonymization of Anaxandra with Acanthosoma: Acanthosoma sichuanense (Liu, 1980), comb. nov., A. montanum (Liu, 1987), comb. nov. Species transferred to Sastragala Amyot & Serville, 1843: Sastragala nigrolineata (Stål, 1876), comb. nov.; S. sigillata (Stål, 1876), comb. nov.; S. versicolor Distant, 1910, comb. restit.; S. yunnana (Hsiao & Liu, 1977), comb. nov.; to Elasmostethus Fieber, 1860: Elasmostethus singhalensis (Distant, 1902), comb. nov. Lectotypes are designated for the following species: Acanthosoma: A. difficile, A. distinctum, A. dubium, A. elongatum, A. forfex, A. proximum; Anaxandra: A. hamata, A. nigrocornuta Reuter, 1881, A. tauriformis; Sastragala: S. murreeana, S. rufispina. A neotype is designated for Anaxandra montana. New country records: Acanthosoma alaticorne and A. rufispinum: Nepal; A. forfex: Burma (Myanmar); A. labiduroides: Burma (Myanmar) and Vietnam; A. montanum: Laos and Vietnam; A. murreeanum: India, Thailand; A. nigricorne: Nepal, Burma (Myanmar) and Vietnam; A. rufescens: Pakistan, Nepal, Taiwan, Burma (Myanmar), Thailand, Laos and Vietnam.

Concepts: Southeast Asia, Thailand, Laos, Burma, 1928, March 4, 1946, 1940


The proclamation, “Gentlemen! this is no humbug,” attributed to John Collins Warren, M.D., was not identified in any contemporaneous eyewitness report of William T. G. Morton’s October 16, 1846, demonstration of ether at Massachusetts General Hospital. The earliest known documentation of the proclamation is in Nathan P. Rice’s biography of Morton, first published in 1859. Only three eyewitnesses, Washington Ayer, M.D., Robert Thompson Davis, M.D., and Isaac Francis Galloupe, M.D., reported Warren’s alleged proclamation. However, their accounts first appeared in 1896, 50 yr after Morton’s demonstration of etherization. Although Warren’s alleged proclamation appears plausible, the overall impression from eyewitness statements and publications relating to the October 16, 1846, demonstration of etherization is that it may not have been made.

Concepts: Report, Boston, Isaac Newton, 1940, First appearance, 1859, Genie Francis, Collins class submarine


Species of the genus Clavus of the conoidean family Drilliidae that occur in the littoral and shallow waters of New Caledonia are here revised. This study is based primarily on recent expedition material from the Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (New Caledonia) and Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (France). A total of 22 species is recorded, of which eight are described as new.        New species: Clavus boucheti, Clavus delphineae, Clavus virginieae, Clavus picoides, Clavus squamiferus, Clavus devexistriatus, Clavus hylikos, Clavus maestratii;        New synonyms: Tylotiella Habe, 1958 = Clavus; Clavus leforestieri Hervier, 1896 = Pleurotoma obliquicostata Reeve, 1845; Pleurotoma mariei Crosse, 1869 = Pleurotoma lamberti Montrouzier, 1860; Clavus mighelsi Kay, 1979, new name for Pleurotoma acuminata Mighels, 1845, non J. Sowerby, 1816, was misidentified by Kay 1979; the lectotype of P. acuminata Mighels, 1845, is mangeliine. Clavus mighelsi sensu Kay 1979, is a synonym of Pleurotoma humilis E. A. Smith, 1879. It is suggested that Pleurotoma pulchella Reeve, 1845, sometimes treated as an Indo-Pacific species, may be a senior synonym of Fenimorea halidorema Schwengel, 1940, from the tropical western Atlantic. Nomen dubium: Pleurotoma mediocris Deshayes, 1863. 

Concepts: Zoological nomenclature, March 1, Synonym, May 25, 1940, Nomen oblitum, Nomen dubium, June 7


Robert Francis QC has recommended that each patient should be allocated a named nurse for each shift to take responsibility for co-ordinating that person’s care needs (News November 27 and Letters December 11).

Concepts: Harshad number, 2007, Names, 1964, 1981, 1975, 1978, 1940


Introduction:Generic clopidogrel recently became available in the United States and was rapidly adopted as a cost-effective alternative to the brand name formulation. However, unlike other medications, subtle differences in clopidogrel bioavailability may lead to acute consequences including stent thrombosis (ST).Materials and METHODS: We studied the incidence of acute and subacute ST during the initial period of generic clopidogrel use (June 18, 2012-September 6, 2012 [80 days]) at a single percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) center. There were 4 definite ST cases within 30 days of successful PCI in patients receiving generic clopidogrel, which were compared to historic control ST cases from 80 days prior to generic clopidogrel use and for 3 years from June 18, 2009 to June 17, 2012.

Concepts: Cardiology, Percutaneous coronary intervention, United States, Introduction, Acute, Trademark, Brand, 1940


The following species of Curculionoidea are recorded from Canada for the first time, in ten cases also representing new records at the generic level: Ischnopterapion (Ischnopterapion) loti (Kirby, 1808); Stenopterapion meliloti (Kirby, 1808) (both Brentidae); Atrichonotus taeniatulus (Berg, 1881); Barinus cribricollis (LeConte, 1876); Caulophilus dubius (Horn, 1873); Cionus scrophulariae (Linnaeus, 1758); Cryptorhynchus tristis LeConte, 1876; Cylindrocopturus furnissi Buchanan, 1940; Cylindrocopturus quercus (Say, 1832); Desmoglyptus crenatus (LeConte, 1876); Pnigodes setosus LeConte, 1876; Pseudopentarthrum parvicollis (Casey, 1892); Sibariops confinis (LeConte, 1876); Sibariops confusus (Boheman, 1836); Smicronyx griseus LeConte, 1876; Smicronyx lineolatus Casey, 1892; Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff, 1875); Hylocurus rudis (LeConte, 1876); Lymantor alaskanus Wood, 1978; Phloeotribus scabricollis (Hopkins, 1916); Scolytus oregoni Blackman, 1934; Xyleborus celsus Eichhoff, 1868; Xyleborus ferrugineus (Fabricius, 1801); Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky, 1866) (all Curculionidae). In addition the following species were recorded for the first time from these provinces and territories: Yukon - Dendroctonus simplex LeConte, 1868; Phloetribus piceae Swaine, 1911 (both Curculionidae); Northwest Territories - Loborhynchapion cyanitinctum (Fall, 1927) (Brentidae); Nunavut - Dendroctonus simplex LeConte, 1868 (Curculionidae); Alberta - Anthonomus tectus LeConte, 1876; Promecotarsus densus Casey, 1892; Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, 1902; Hylastes macer LeConte, 1868; Rhyncolus knowltoni (Thatcher, 1940); Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov Tjan-Shansky, 1902 (all Curculionidae); Saskatchewan - Phloeotribus liminaris (Harris, 1852); Rhyncolus knowltoni (Thatcher, 1940); Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov Tjan-Shansky, 1902 (all Curculionidae); Manitoba - Cosmobaris scolopacea Germar, 1819; Listronotus maculicollis (Kirby, 1837); Listronotus punctiger LeConte, 1876; Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov Tjan-Shansky, 1902; Tyloderma foveolatum (Say, 1832); (all Curculionidae); Ontario - Trichapion nigrum (Herbst, 1797); Nanophyes marmoratus marmoratus (Goeze, 1777) (both Brentidae); Asperosoma echinatum (Fall, 1917); Micracis suturalis LeConte, 1868; Orchestes alni (Linnaeus, 1758); Phloeosinus pini Swaine, 1915; Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov Tjan-Shansky, 1902; Xyleborinus attenuatus (Blandford, 1894) (all Curculionidae); Quebec - Trigonorhinus alternatus (Say, 1826); Trigonorhinus tomentosus tomentosus (Say, 1826) (both Anthribidae); Trichapion nigrum (Herbst, 1797); Trichapion porcatum (Boheman, 1839); Nanophyes marmoratus marmoratus (Goeze, 1777) (all Brentidae); Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel, 1952 (Brachyceridae); Acalles carinatus LeConte, 1876; Ampeloglypter ampelopsis (Riley, 1869); Anthonomus rufipes LeConte, 1876; Anthonomus suturalis LeConte, 1824; Ceutorhynchus hamiltoni Dietz, 1896; Curculio pardalis (Chittenden, 1908); Cyrtepistomus castaneus (Roelofs, 1873); Larinus planus (Fabricius, 1792); Mecinus janthinus (Germar, 1821); Microhyus setiger LeConte, 1876; Microplontus campestris (Gyllenhal, 1837); Orchestes alni (Linnaeus, 1758); Otiorhynchus ligustici (Linnaeus, 1758); Rhinusa neta (Germar, 1821); Trichobaris trinotata (Say, 1832); Tychius liljebladi Blatchley, 1916; Xyleborinus attenuatus (Blandford, 1894); Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff, 1868 (all Curculionidae); Sphenophorus incongruus Chittenden, 1905 (Dryophthoridae); New Brunswick - Euparius paganus Gyllenhal, 1833; Allandrus populi Pierce, 1930; Gonotropis dorsalis (Thunberg, 1796); Euxenus punctatus LeConte, 1876 (all Anthribidae); Loborhynchapion cyanitinctum (Fall, 1927) (Brentidae); Pseudanthonomus seriesetosus Dietz, 1891; Curculio sulcatulus (Casey, 1897); Lignyodes bischoffi (Blatchley, 1916); Lignyodes horridulus (Casey, 1892); Dietzella zimmermanni (Gyllenhal, 1837); Parenthis vestitus Dietz, 1896; Pelenomus squamosus LeConte, 1876; Psomus armatus Dietz, 1891; Rhyncolus macrops Buchanan, 1946; Magdalis inconspicua Horn, 1873; Magdalis salicis Horn, 1873 (all Curculionidae); Nova Scotia - Dryocoetes autographus (Ratzeburg, 1837); Ips perroti Swaine, 1915; Xyleborinus attenuatus (Blandford, 1894) (all Curculionidae); Prince Edward Island - Dryocoetes caryi Hopkins, 1915 (Curculionidae); Newfoundland - Scolytus piceae (Swaine, 1910) (Curculionidae). Published records of Dendroctonus simplex LeConte, 1868 from Northwest Territories should be reassigned to Nunavut, leaving no documented record for NWT. Collection data are provided for eight provincial and national records published without further information previously.

Concepts: 1916, Curculionidae, March 4, February 11, 1967, 1940, January 20, December 5


A pioneer in the field of spermatogenesis and a man we all knew as “Norm” died February 28 in Seattle where he was receiving treatment for pancreatic cancer. Norman Bernard Hecht retired in April of 2011 as Emeritus Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. Norman was married to Mary Alice (Reginer) on June 16, 1968, and is survived by Mary, their two children, David in San Francisco and Rachelle in Seattle, and 4 grandchildren.

Concepts: Medicine, Obstetrics and gynaecology, 1993, 1973, 1902, 1985, 1940, 1883