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Concept: 1922

320

Depressive disorders were a leading cause of burden in the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 1990 and 2000 studies. Here, we analyze the burden of depressive disorders in GBD 2010 and present severity proportions, burden by country, region, age, sex, and year, as well as burden of depressive disorders as a risk factor for suicide and ischemic heart disease.

Concepts: Death, Risk, 1920, Heart disease, Ischemia, Major depressive disorder, Ischaemic heart disease, 1922

48

Throughout the world, drug and alcohol use has a clear adolescent onset (Degenhardt et al., 2008). Alcohol continues to be the most popular drug among teens and emerging adults, with almost a third of 12th graders and 40% of college students reporting recent binge drinking (Johnston et al., 2009, 2010), and marijuana (MJ) is the second most popular drug in teens (Johnston et al., 2010). The initiation of drug use is consistent with an overall increase in risk-taking behaviors during adolescence that coincides with significant neurodevelopmental changes in both gray and white matter (Giedd et al., 1996a; Paus et al., 1999; Sowell et al., 1999, 2002, 2004; Gogtay et al., 2004; Barnea-Goraly et al., 2005; Lenroot and Giedd, 2006). Animal studies have suggested that compared to adults, adolescents may be particularly vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of drugs, especially alcohol and MJ (see Schneider and Koch, 2003; Barron et al., 2005; Monti et al., 2005; Cha et al., 2006; Rubino et al., 2009; Spear, 2010). In this review, we will provide a detailed overview of studies that examined the impact of early adolescent onset of alcohol and MJ use on neurocognition (e.g., Ehrenreich et al., 1999; Wilson et al., 2000; Tapert et al., 2002a; Hartley et al., 2004; Fried et al., 2005; Townshend and Duka, 2005; Medina et al., 2007a; McQueeny et al., 2009; Gruber et al., 2011, 2012; Hanson et al., 2011; Lisdahl and Price, 2012), with a special emphasis on recent prospective longitudinal studies (e.g., White et al., 2011; Hicks et al., 2012; Meier et al., 2012). Finally, we will explore potential clinical and public health implications of these findings.

Concepts: 1920, 1919, 1918, 1921, 1922, 1916, 1932, 1926

35

In 2002, the euthanasia act came into effect in the Netherlands, which was followed by a slight decrease in the euthanasia frequency. We assessed frequency and characteristics of euthanasia, physician-assisted suicide, and other end-of-life practices in 2010, and assessed trends since 1990.

Concepts: Death, 1920, Prostitution in the Netherlands, 1922, 1916, 1932, 1926, March 1

34

To the Editor: In Belgium, where euthanasia was legalized in 2002, large-scale repeat surveys have monitored the evolution of medical end-of-life practices since 1998, with subsequent surveys conducted in 2001 and 2007(1),(2) and the latest in 2013. As was done in previous surveys,(2) we sent questionnaires to 6188 physicians certifying death certificates from the first half of 2013 in Flanders, the Dutch-speaking half of Belgium, with approximately 6 million inhabitants and 58,000 deaths annually (see the Supplementary Appendix, available with the full text of this letter at NEJM.org). The response rate was 60.6%. The response sample was weighted to be . . .

Concepts: Medicine, Death, 1920, 1913, 1918, 1922, 1916, 1906

29

In the first CONCORD study (2008), 5-year survival for patients diagnosed with colon cancer between 1990 and 1994 in the United States was among the highest in the world (60%), but there were large racial disparities in most participating states. The CONCORD-2 study (2015) enabled the examination of survival trends between 1995 and 2009 for US states by race and stage.

Concepts: United States, 1911, U.S. state, Race, 1918, 1921, 1922, 1916

28

Objective-To estimate the seroprevalence of antibodies against H3N8 canine influenza virus (CIV) in a population of US dogs with influenza-like illness (ILI) and to identify factors associated with seropositivity. Design-Cross-sectional study. Animals-1,268 pet and shelter dogs with ILI in 42 states. Procedures-Serum samples collected from dogs from 2005 through June 2009 were tested for H3N8 CIV antibodies with a hemagglutination inhibition assay. Intrinsic factors (age, breed, and sex), extrinsic factors (dogs housed in a shelter facility, boarding kennel, or other setting), and geographic region (southwest, west, Midwest, southeast, and northeast) were compared between seropositive and seronegative dogs to identify variables associated with seropositivity. Results-Most (750/1,268 [59%]) dogs in the study were from Colorado, Florida, or New York. The overall seroprevalence of antibodies against H3N8 CIV was 49% (618/1,268 dogs; 95% confidence interval, 46% to 51%). The annual prevalence of H3N8 CIV seropositivity increased from 2005 (44%) to 2006 (53%) and 2007 (62%), then decreased in 2008 (38%) and 2009 (15%). The likelihood of H3N8 CIV seropositivity was associated with geographic region (southeast during 2005, west and northeast during 2006 and 2007, and northeast during 2008) and exposure setting (dogs housed in a shelter facility or boarding kennel during 2005 and 2006). Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results of this study suggested there is a need for continued surveillance for H3N8 CIV infection in dogs in the United States and that personnel in communal dog-housing facilities should formulate, implement, and evaluate biosecurity protocols to reduce the risk of CIV transmission among dogs.

Concepts: Influenza, 1913, 1918, 1921, 1922, 1916, 1925, 1917

27

Severe obesity in childhood is associated with negative health consequences. A previous study examined trends in severe obesity among preschool-aged children in low-income families during 1998 to 2010. No recent trends have been reported.

Concepts: Nutrition, Diabetes mellitus, Obesity, 1920, Malnutrition, Healthy diet, Childhood obesity, 1922

17

Many changes in the economy, policies related to nutrition, and food processing have occurred within the United States since 2000, and the net effect on dietary quality is not clear. These changes may have affected various socioeconomic groups differentially.

Concepts: Nutrition, United States, Food, 1920, 1922

14

On March 11, 2011, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake struck the northeast region of Japan. During the first 4 weeks after the earthquake, the numbers of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests were significantly increased as compared with the numbers during the same weeks from 2005 to 2010.

Concepts: 1920, Cardiac arrest, Earthquake, Great Hanshin earthquake, 1921, 1922, 1916, 1932

14

Nearly 60 years ago, Jerome L. Singer launched a groundbreaking research program into daydreaming (Singer, 1955, 1975, 2009) that presaged and laid the foundation for virtually every major strand of mind wandering research active today (Antrobus, 1999; Klinger, 1999, 2009). Here we review Singer’s enormous contribution to the field, which includes insights, methodologies, and tools still in use today, and trace his enduring legacy as revealed in the recent proliferation of mind wandering studies. We then turn to the central theme in Singer’s work, the adaptive nature of positive constructive daydreaming, which was a revolutionary idea when Singer began his work in the 1950s and remains underreported today. Last, we propose a new approach to answering the enduring question: Why does mind wandering persist and occupy so much of our time, as much as 50% of our waking time according to some estimates, if it is as costly as most studies suggest?

Concepts: 1920, January 1, 1918, 1922, July 1, April 25, December 3, January 25