Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: 1921


Throughout the world, drug and alcohol use has a clear adolescent onset (Degenhardt et al., 2008). Alcohol continues to be the most popular drug among teens and emerging adults, with almost a third of 12th graders and 40% of college students reporting recent binge drinking (Johnston et al., 2009, 2010), and marijuana (MJ) is the second most popular drug in teens (Johnston et al., 2010). The initiation of drug use is consistent with an overall increase in risk-taking behaviors during adolescence that coincides with significant neurodevelopmental changes in both gray and white matter (Giedd et al., 1996a; Paus et al., 1999; Sowell et al., 1999, 2002, 2004; Gogtay et al., 2004; Barnea-Goraly et al., 2005; Lenroot and Giedd, 2006). Animal studies have suggested that compared to adults, adolescents may be particularly vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of drugs, especially alcohol and MJ (see Schneider and Koch, 2003; Barron et al., 2005; Monti et al., 2005; Cha et al., 2006; Rubino et al., 2009; Spear, 2010). In this review, we will provide a detailed overview of studies that examined the impact of early adolescent onset of alcohol and MJ use on neurocognition (e.g., Ehrenreich et al., 1999; Wilson et al., 2000; Tapert et al., 2002a; Hartley et al., 2004; Fried et al., 2005; Townshend and Duka, 2005; Medina et al., 2007a; McQueeny et al., 2009; Gruber et al., 2011, 2012; Hanson et al., 2011; Lisdahl and Price, 2012), with a special emphasis on recent prospective longitudinal studies (e.g., White et al., 2011; Hicks et al., 2012; Meier et al., 2012). Finally, we will explore potential clinical and public health implications of these findings.

Concepts: 1920, 1919, 1918, 1921, 1922, 1916, 1932, 1926


On September 8, 2015, the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and 15 other federal departments and agencies issued a proposal to revise the regulations governing the ethical conduct of research involving humans.(1) The current regulations were adopted by HHS in 1981 to implement the landmark 1979 Belmont Report. Adopted by other agencies throughout government in 1991, the regulations, informally known as the Common Rule, have changed little since their inception, while the research landscape has changed radically. In addition to revolutionary advances in scientific knowledge and technologies, society has undergone tremendous shifts in recent decades that are highly . . .

Concepts: Scientific method, Epistemology, Science, 21st century, Society, 1921, 2007, September 8


In the first CONCORD study (2008), 5-year survival for patients diagnosed with colon cancer between 1990 and 1994 in the United States was among the highest in the world (60%), but there were large racial disparities in most participating states. The CONCORD-2 study (2015) enabled the examination of survival trends between 1995 and 2009 for US states by race and stage.

Concepts: United States, 1911, U.S. state, Race, 1918, 1921, 1922, 1916


Objective-To estimate the seroprevalence of antibodies against H3N8 canine influenza virus (CIV) in a population of US dogs with influenza-like illness (ILI) and to identify factors associated with seropositivity. Design-Cross-sectional study. Animals-1,268 pet and shelter dogs with ILI in 42 states. Procedures-Serum samples collected from dogs from 2005 through June 2009 were tested for H3N8 CIV antibodies with a hemagglutination inhibition assay. Intrinsic factors (age, breed, and sex), extrinsic factors (dogs housed in a shelter facility, boarding kennel, or other setting), and geographic region (southwest, west, Midwest, southeast, and northeast) were compared between seropositive and seronegative dogs to identify variables associated with seropositivity. Results-Most (750/1,268 [59%]) dogs in the study were from Colorado, Florida, or New York. The overall seroprevalence of antibodies against H3N8 CIV was 49% (618/1,268 dogs; 95% confidence interval, 46% to 51%). The annual prevalence of H3N8 CIV seropositivity increased from 2005 (44%) to 2006 (53%) and 2007 (62%), then decreased in 2008 (38%) and 2009 (15%). The likelihood of H3N8 CIV seropositivity was associated with geographic region (southeast during 2005, west and northeast during 2006 and 2007, and northeast during 2008) and exposure setting (dogs housed in a shelter facility or boarding kennel during 2005 and 2006). Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results of this study suggested there is a need for continued surveillance for H3N8 CIV infection in dogs in the United States and that personnel in communal dog-housing facilities should formulate, implement, and evaluate biosecurity protocols to reduce the risk of CIV transmission among dogs.

Concepts: Influenza, 1913, 1918, 1921, 1922, 1916, 1925, 1917


BACKGROUND: Over the last decade inpatient treatment has been reduced in favor of outpatient care or markedly shortened inpatient stays in most organ-specific surgical specialties such as ophthalmology in Germany. METHODS: Data from the federal statistics agency on the international classification of disease (ICD), diagnosis-related groups (DRG) and performed operations and procedures from 2000 to 2010 as well as data from the Institute for Reimbursements of Hospitals (InEK) on average costs per DRG in every German DRG (G-DRG) version from 2004 to 2010 were analyzed for ophthalmology. RESULTS: From 2000 to 2010, the number of cases with a main ophthalmological diagnosis decreased (-19 %), which was mostly due to a reduction in the number of cataract inpatients (-56 %). All subspecialties such as glaucoma (+82 %) and retina (+68 %) with the exception of primary strabismus diagnoses (-15 %) gained in number of cases. Inpatient cataract surgery was the most common surgery in 2004 but numbers decreased to 2010 (-9 %). The most often performed inpatient procedure was vitreoretinal surgery in 2007 and 2010 (increase 2004-2010  + 46 %). Average hospital stay decreased between 2005 and 2010 from 3.9 to 3.4 days and the average cost per case increased by 3.6 % overall and by 13.4 % for surgical cases. CONCLUSION: Ophthalmic healthcare provided as inpatient services decreased with a trend towards more complex cases being treated as inpatients from 2000 to 2010.

Concepts: Medicine, Hospital, Surgery, 1920, Ophthalmology, Phacoemulsification, Eye surgery, 1921


In the past decade, guidelines have been developed for the early detection and management of severe sepsis in children and neonates. However, severe sepsis continues to be a significant U.S. healthcare problem, accounting for over 720,000 annual hospitalizations. Large-scale epidemiologic studies of severe sepsis continue to be limited, particularly in children. We present data from 1995, 2000, and 2005 in seven U.S. states, examining how case mix, outcome, and resource use for pediatric severe sepsis have changed over time.

Concepts: Time, Public health, Health, Epidemiology, 1920, U.S. state, Past, 1921


Depression has long been hypothesized to be associated with cancer incidence. However, there is evidence for a positive publication bias in this field. In the present study, we examined the association between various measures of depression and cancer incidence at several sites. A total of 14,203 members of the French GAZEL (Gaz et Electricité) cohort (10,506 men, 3,697 women) were followed up for diagnoses of primary cancers from January 1, 1994, to December 31, 2009. All medically certified sickness absences for depression recorded between January 1, 1990, and December 31, 1993, were compiled. Depressive symptoms were self-reported in 1993, 1996, and 1999 with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. During a mean follow-up period of 15.2 years, 1,119 participants received a cancer diagnosis, excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer and in situ neoplasms. Considering 6 cancer sites (prostate, breast, colorectal, smoking-related, lymphoid and hematopoietic tissues, other sites) and 4 measures of depression, we found 1 positive association and 1 negative association. Overall, there was no compelling evidence for an association between depression and cancer incidence. Such null results should be considered when addressing concerns of cancer patients and their relatives about the role of depression in cancer onset.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Cancer, Oncology, Carcinoma in situ, 1920, January 1, 1921, 1930


On March 11, 2011, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake struck the northeast region of Japan. During the first 4 weeks after the earthquake, the numbers of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests were significantly increased as compared with the numbers during the same weeks from 2005 to 2010.

Concepts: 1920, Cardiac arrest, Earthquake, Great Hanshin earthquake, 1921, 1922, 1916, 1932


When varicella vaccine was licensed in the United States in 1995, there were concerns that childhood vaccination might increase the number of adolescents susceptible to varicella and shift disease toward older age groups where it can be more severe.METHODS: We conducted a series of 5 cross-sectional studies in 1994 to 1995 (prevaccine), 2000, 2003, 2006, and 2009 in Kaiser Permanente of Northern California to assess changes in varicella epidemiology in children and adolescents, as well as changes in varicella hospitalization in people of all ages. For each study, information on varicella history and varicella occurrence during the past year was obtained by telephone survey from a sample of ∼8000 members 5 to 19 years old; varicella hospitalization rates were calculated for the entire membership.RESULTS: Between 1995 and 2009, the overall incidence of varicella in 5- to 19-year-olds decreased from 25.8 to 1.3 per 1000 person-years, a ∼90% to 95% decline in the various age categories (5-9, 10-14, and 15-19 years of age). The proportion of varicella-susceptible children and adolescents also decreased in all age groups, including in 15- to 19-year-olds (from 15.6% in 1995 to 7.6% in 2009). From 1994 to 2009, age-adjusted varicella hospitalization rates in the general member population decreased from 2.13 to 0.25 per 100 000, a ∼90% decline.CONCLUSIONS: In the 15 years after the introduction of varicella vaccine, a major reduction in varicella incidence and hospitalization was observed with no evidence of a shift in the burden of varicella to older age groups.

Concepts: Public health, Epidemiology, Demography, 1911, Kaiser Permanente, Smallpox, 1921, Roman numerals


Whereas German suicide rates had a clear decreasing tendency between 1991 and 2006, they increased from 2007 to 2010. Deeper analyses of suicide data might help to understand better this change. The aim of this study was to analyze 1) whether recent trends can be related to changes in specific suicide methods and diverge by gender and age; 2) whether the decrease of suicide rates before 2007 as well as the increase from 2007 to 2010 are driven by the same suicide method.

Concepts: 1920, 1913, 1921, 1922, 1916, Suicide methods, 1926, 1924