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Concept: 1920


Depressive disorders were a leading cause of burden in the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 1990 and 2000 studies. Here, we analyze the burden of depressive disorders in GBD 2010 and present severity proportions, burden by country, region, age, sex, and year, as well as burden of depressive disorders as a risk factor for suicide and ischemic heart disease.

Concepts: Death, Risk, 1920, Heart disease, Ischemia, Major depressive disorder, Ischaemic heart disease, 1922


Throughout the world, drug and alcohol use has a clear adolescent onset (Degenhardt et al., 2008). Alcohol continues to be the most popular drug among teens and emerging adults, with almost a third of 12th graders and 40% of college students reporting recent binge drinking (Johnston et al., 2009, 2010), and marijuana (MJ) is the second most popular drug in teens (Johnston et al., 2010). The initiation of drug use is consistent with an overall increase in risk-taking behaviors during adolescence that coincides with significant neurodevelopmental changes in both gray and white matter (Giedd et al., 1996a; Paus et al., 1999; Sowell et al., 1999, 2002, 2004; Gogtay et al., 2004; Barnea-Goraly et al., 2005; Lenroot and Giedd, 2006). Animal studies have suggested that compared to adults, adolescents may be particularly vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of drugs, especially alcohol and MJ (see Schneider and Koch, 2003; Barron et al., 2005; Monti et al., 2005; Cha et al., 2006; Rubino et al., 2009; Spear, 2010). In this review, we will provide a detailed overview of studies that examined the impact of early adolescent onset of alcohol and MJ use on neurocognition (e.g., Ehrenreich et al., 1999; Wilson et al., 2000; Tapert et al., 2002a; Hartley et al., 2004; Fried et al., 2005; Townshend and Duka, 2005; Medina et al., 2007a; McQueeny et al., 2009; Gruber et al., 2011, 2012; Hanson et al., 2011; Lisdahl and Price, 2012), with a special emphasis on recent prospective longitudinal studies (e.g., White et al., 2011; Hicks et al., 2012; Meier et al., 2012). Finally, we will explore potential clinical and public health implications of these findings.

Concepts: 1920, 1919, 1918, 1921, 1922, 1916, 1932, 1926


To the Editor: In Belgium, where euthanasia was legalized in 2002, large-scale repeat surveys have monitored the evolution of medical end-of-life practices since 1998, with subsequent surveys conducted in 2001 and 2007(1),(2) and the latest in 2013. As was done in previous surveys,(2) we sent questionnaires to 6188 physicians certifying death certificates from the first half of 2013 in Flanders, the Dutch-speaking half of Belgium, with approximately 6 million inhabitants and 58,000 deaths annually (see the Supplementary Appendix, available with the full text of this letter at The response rate was 60.6%. The response sample was weighted to be . . .

Concepts: Medicine, Death, 1920, 1913, 1918, 1922, 1916, 1906


In 2002, the euthanasia act came into effect in the Netherlands, which was followed by a slight decrease in the euthanasia frequency. We assessed frequency and characteristics of euthanasia, physician-assisted suicide, and other end-of-life practices in 2010, and assessed trends since 1990.

Concepts: Death, 1920, Prostitution in the Netherlands, 1922, 1916, 1932, 1926, March 1


Nearly all European countries have been affected by the economic crisis that began in 2007, but the consequences have been among the worst in Spain. We investigated the associations of the recession on the frequency of mood, anxiety, somatoform, alcohol-related and eating disorders among those visiting Spanish primary care settings.

Concepts: Nutrition, 1920, Spanish language, Europe, Mental disorder, Spain, Financial crisis, 1916


Context.- Original surgical pathology materials from external sources are reviewed by our pathologists for referred patients before their clinical evaluation and treatment. Objective.- To identify the rate of major disagreements with diagnoses from external institutions and to characterize the nature and impact of discordant diagnoses on patient care. Design.- We identified and reviewed all surgical pathology cases, except for medical liver, medical renal, and cardiac pathology cases, for the period between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2010, to determine the overall frequency of major disagreements, defined as any change in diagnosis having a substantial impact on patient management. Results.- Our review of 71 811 cases initially examined between 2005 and 2010 identified 457 major disagreements (0.6%). The most frequent areas of disagreement were gastrointestinal (80 cases; 17.5%), lymph node (73; 16.0%), bone/soft tissue (47; 10.3%), and genitourinary (43; 9.4%). For a subset of 166 cases reviewed between July 1, 2009, and December 31, 2010, follow-up data were available for 140 (84.3%). Treatment was affected by a changed diagnosis in 126 cases (90.0%), and prognosis was affected in 129 cases (92.1%). For 86 (51.8%) of the 166 cases, additional tissue was obtained. Revised diagnoses concurred with follow-up tissue diagnosis in 84.9% (73 cases), whereas they differed from follow-up tissue diagnosis in 15.1% (13 cases). Conclusions.- Our findings demonstrate the value of outside case review of pathology materials for referred patients, and suggest that it decreases the likelihood of diagnostic errors and provides better protection for patients.

Concepts: Medical terms, Patient, Pathology, Hospital, 1920, Physician, Illness, Prime number


The aim of this study was to report the trends in provision of cholecystectomy in the National Health System in England over the 9 year period from 2000 to 2009 and to determine the major risk factors associated with subsequent poor outcome.

Concepts: Medicine, Universal health care, Public health, Epidemiology, 1920, Major, Trigonometric functions


Abstract Background: During the past decade, several clinical trials investigating the potential benefits of homocysteine-lowering therapy for the secondary prevention of vascular events were completed and published. The objective of the study was to determine trends in clinical laboratory testing for homocysteine at a single institution over the time period from 1997 to 2010. Methods: A single-center, retrospective analysis was performed at a large, academic, tertiary care medical center in the USA. The database was searched for clinical laboratory measurements of plasma or serum homocysteine between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 2010. Individual medical records were reviewed for a subset of 221 unique patients in the 10-year period from 2001 to 2010 who had homocysteine values ≥20 μmol/L. Results: From 1997 to 2003, there was a 16-fold increase in the annual number of homocysteine assays performed. Testing for homocysteine declined in 2004 and 2006, coinciding with the publication of intervention trials that failed to support a clinical benefit of homocysteine-lowering therapy for the secondary prevention of vascular events. Subgroup analysis suggested that homocysteine testing for the indication of suspected nutritional deficiency or hypercoagulability remained steady despite a decline in testing for the indication of cardiac risk assessment. Conclusions: The frequency of clinical laboratory testing for plasma or serum homocysteine changed bimodally over the time period from 1997 to 2010. These observations suggest that clinical practice was impacted by emerging evidence from association studies and intervention trials investigating homocysteine as a potentially treatable cardiac risk factor.

Concepts: Medicine, Clinical trial, Medical statistics, The Canon of Medicine, Avicenna, 1920, January 1, Medical laboratory


Severe obesity in childhood is associated with negative health consequences. A previous study examined trends in severe obesity among preschool-aged children in low-income families during 1998 to 2010. No recent trends have been reported.

Concepts: Nutrition, Diabetes mellitus, Obesity, 1920, Malnutrition, Healthy diet, Childhood obesity, 1922


BACKGROUND: Over the last decade inpatient treatment has been reduced in favor of outpatient care or markedly shortened inpatient stays in most organ-specific surgical specialties such as ophthalmology in Germany. METHODS: Data from the federal statistics agency on the international classification of disease (ICD), diagnosis-related groups (DRG) and performed operations and procedures from 2000 to 2010 as well as data from the Institute for Reimbursements of Hospitals (InEK) on average costs per DRG in every German DRG (G-DRG) version from 2004 to 2010 were analyzed for ophthalmology. RESULTS: From 2000 to 2010, the number of cases with a main ophthalmological diagnosis decreased (-19 %), which was mostly due to a reduction in the number of cataract inpatients (-56 %). All subspecialties such as glaucoma (+82 %) and retina (+68 %) with the exception of primary strabismus diagnoses (-15 %) gained in number of cases. Inpatient cataract surgery was the most common surgery in 2004 but numbers decreased to 2010 (-9 %). The most often performed inpatient procedure was vitreoretinal surgery in 2007 and 2010 (increase 2004-2010  + 46 %). Average hospital stay decreased between 2005 and 2010 from 3.9 to 3.4 days and the average cost per case increased by 3.6 % overall and by 13.4 % for surgical cases. CONCLUSION: Ophthalmic healthcare provided as inpatient services decreased with a trend towards more complex cases being treated as inpatients from 2000 to 2010.

Concepts: Medicine, Hospital, Surgery, 1920, Ophthalmology, Phacoemulsification, Eye surgery, 1921