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Concept: 175

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Background Nivolumab plus ipilimumab produced objective responses in patients with advanced renal-cell carcinoma in a pilot study. This phase 3 trial compared nivolumab plus ipilimumab with sunitinib for previously untreated clear-cell advanced renal-cell carcinoma. Methods We randomly assigned adults in a 1:1 ratio to receive either nivolumab (3 mg per kilogram of body weight) plus ipilimumab (1 mg per kilogram) intravenously every 3 weeks for four doses, followed by nivolumab (3 mg per kilogram) every 2 weeks, or sunitinib (50 mg) orally once daily for 4 weeks (6-week cycle). The coprimary end points were overall survival (alpha level,0.04), objective response rate (alpha level,0.001), and progression-free survival (alpha level,0.009) among patients with intermediate or poor prognostic risk. Results A total of 1096 patients were assigned to receive nivolumab plus ipilimumab (550 patients) or sunitinib (546 patients); 425 and 422, respectively, had intermediate or poor risk. At a median follow-up of 25.2 months in intermediate- and poor-risk patients, the 18-month overall survival rate was 75% (95% confidence interval [CI], 70 to 78) with nivolumab plus ipilimumab and 60% (95% CI, 55 to 65) with sunitinib; the median overall survival was not reached with nivolumab plus ipilimumab versus 26.0 months with sunitinib (hazard ratio for death, 0.63; P<0.001). The objective response rate was 42% versus 27% (P<0.001), and the complete response rate was 9% versus 1%. The median progression-free survival was 11.6 months and 8.4 months, respectively (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.82; P=0.03, not significant per the prespecified 0.009 threshold). Treatment-related adverse events occurred in 509 of 547 patients (93%) in the nivolumab-plus-ipilimumab group and 521 of 535 patients (97%) in the sunitinib group; grade 3 or 4 events occurred in 250 patients (46%) and 335 patients (63%), respectively. Treatment-related adverse events leading to discontinuation occurred in 22% and 12% of the patients in the respective groups. Conclusions Overall survival and objective response rates were significantly higher with nivolumab plus ipilimumab than with sunitinib among intermediate- and poor-risk patients with previously untreated advanced renal-cell carcinoma. (Funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb and Ono Pharmaceutical; CheckMate 214 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02231749 .).

Concepts: Clinical trial, Survival analysis, Response rate, Renal cell carcinoma, Statistical ratios, Bristol-Myers Squibb, 175, Medarex

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The fluorescence lifetimes of most red emitting organic probes are under 4 nanoseconds, which is a limiting factor in studying interactions and conformational dynamics of macromolecules. In addition, the nanosecond background autofluorescence is a significant interference during fluorescence measurements in cellular environment. Therefore, red fluorophores with longer lifetimes will be immensely helpful. Azaoxa-triangulenium fluorophores ADOTA and DAOTA are red emitting small organic molecules with high quantum yield, long fluorescence lifetime and high limiting anisotropy. In aqueous environment, ADOTA and DAOTA absorption and emission maxima are respectively 540 nm and 556 nm, and 556 nm and 589 nm. Their emission extends beyond 700 nm. Both probes have the limiting anisotropy between 0.36-0.38 at their absorption peak. In both protic and aprotic solvents, their lifetimes are around 20 ns, making them among the longest-lived red emitting organic fluorophores. Upon labeling of avidin, streptavidin and immunoglobulin their absorption and fluorescence are red-shifted. Unlike in free form, the protein-conjugated probes have heterogeneous fluorescence decays, with the presence of both significantly quenched and unquenched populations. Despite the presence of significant local motions due to a flexible trimethylene linker, we successfully measured both intermediate nanosecond intra-protein motions and slower rotational correlation times approaching 100 ns. Their long lifetimes are unaffected by the cell membrane (hexadecyl-ADOTA) and the intra-cellular (DAOTA-Arginine) localization. Their long lifetimes also enabled successful time-gating of the cellular autofluorescence resulting in background-free fluorescence lifetime based images. ADOTA and DAOTA retain a long fluorescence lifetime when free, as protein conjugate, in membranes and inside the cell. Our successful measurements of intermediate nanosecond internal motions and long correlations times of large proteins suggest that these probes will be highly useful to study slower intra-molecular motions and interactions among macromolecules. The fluorescence lifetime facilitated gating of cellular nanosecond autofluorescence should be of considerable help in in vitro and in vivo applications.

Concepts: Protein, Fluorescence, Cell membrane, In vivo, Organic compound, In vitro, Small molecule, 175

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BACKGROUND: We sought to characterise the frequency, health outcomes and economic consequences of diagnostic errors in the USA through analysis of closed, paid malpractice claims. METHODS: We analysed diagnosis-related claims from the National Practitioner Data Bank (1986-2010). We describe error type, outcome severity and payments (in 2011 US dollars), comparing diagnostic errors to other malpractice allegation groups and inpatient to outpatient within diagnostic errors. RESULTS: We analysed 350 706 paid claims. Diagnostic errors (n=100 249) were the leading type (28.6%) and accounted for the highest proportion of total payments (35.2%). The most frequent outcomes were death, significant permanent injury, major permanent injury and minor permanent injury. Diagnostic errors more often resulted in death than other allegation groups (40.9% vs 23.9%, p<0.001) and were the leading cause of claims-associated death and disability. More diagnostic error claims were outpatient than inpatient (68.8% vs 31.2%, p<0.001), but inpatient diagnostic errors were more likely to be lethal (48.4% vs 36.9%, p<0.001). The inflation-adjusted, 25-year sum of diagnosis-related payments was US$38.8 billion (mean per-claim payout US$386 849; median US$213 250; IQR US$74 545-484 500). Per-claim payments for permanent, serious morbidity that was 'quadriplegic, brain damage, lifelong care' (4.5%; mean US$808 591; median US$564 300), 'major' (13.3%; mean US$568 599; median US$355 350), or 'significant' (16.9%; mean US$419 711; median US$269 255) exceeded those where the outcome was death (40.9%; mean US$390 186; median US$251 745). CONCLUSIONS: Among malpractice claims, diagnostic errors appear to be the most common, most costly and most dangerous of medical mistakes. We found roughly equal numbers of lethal and non-lethal errors in our analysis, suggesting that the public health burden of diagnostic errors could be twice that previously estimated. Healthcare stakeholders should consider diagnostic safety a critical health policy issue.

Concepts: Median, Error, Absolute deviation, Mean, Normal distribution, Outcome, Medical malpractice, 175

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Background The safest ranges of oxygen saturation in preterm infants have been the subject of debate. Methods In two trials, conducted in Australia and the United Kingdom, infants born before 28 weeks' gestation were randomly assigned to either a lower (85 to 89%) or a higher (91 to 95%) oxygen-saturation range. During enrollment, the oximeters were revised to correct a calibration-algorithm artifact. The primary outcome was death or disability at a corrected gestational age of 2 years; this outcome was evaluated among infants whose oxygen saturation was measured with any study oximeter in the Australian trial and those whose oxygen saturation was measured with a revised oximeter in the U.K. trial. Results After 1135 infants in Australia and 973 infants in the United Kingdom had been enrolled in the trial, an interim analysis showed increased mortality at a corrected gestational age of 36 weeks, and enrollment was stopped. Death or disability in the Australian trial (with all oximeters included) occurred in 247 of 549 infants (45.0%) in the lower-target group versus 217 of 545 infants (39.8%) in the higher-target group (adjusted relative risk, 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.98 to 1.27; P=0.10); death or disability in the U.K. trial (with only revised oximeters included) occurred in 185 of 366 infants (50.5%) in the lower-target group versus 164 of 357 infants (45.9%) in the higher-target group (adjusted relative risk, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.24; P=0.15). In post hoc combined, unadjusted analyses that included all oximeters, death or disability occurred in 492 of 1022 infants (48.1%) in the lower-target group versus 437 of 1013 infants (43.1%) in the higher-target group (relative risk, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.23; P=0.02), and death occurred in 222 of 1045 infants (21.2%) in the lower-target group versus 185 of 1045 infants (17.7%) in the higher-target group (relative risk, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.43; P=0.04). In the group in which revised oximeters were used, death or disability occurred in 287 of 580 infants (49.5%) in the lower-target group versus 248 of 563 infants (44.0%) in the higher-target group (relative risk, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.27; P=0.07), and death occurred in 144 of 587 infants (24.5%) versus 99 of 586 infants (16.9%) (relative risk, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.82; P=0.001). Conclusions Use of an oxygen-saturation target range of 85 to 89% versus 91 to 95% resulted in nonsignificantly higher rates of death or disability at 2 years in each trial but in significantly increased risks of this combined outcome and of death alone in post hoc combined analyses. (Funded by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council and others; BOOST-II Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN00842661 , and Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number, ACTRN12605000055606 .).

Concepts: Cohort study, Epidemiology, Fetus, Medical statistics, United Kingdom, The Trial, Pulse oximeter, 175

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An efficient HPTLC method was developed, which required minimal sample preparation for quantitation of the main anthocyanes in pomace, animal feed as well as various foods. The best separation of 11 anthocyanes was achieved on HPTLC plates silica gel 60 F254 with a mixture of ethyl acetate-2-butanone-formic acid-water for anthocyanins and ethyl acetate-toluene-formic acid-water for anthocyanidins. Due to the high flexibility of the HPTLC method, both anthocyane groups could be developed in a combined 2-step method. The second development was only necessary if anthocyanidins were detected in the samples. This normal phase separation was found superior to the best separation achieved on RP-18 phases with a mixture of water-n-propanol-formic acid. Absorbance measurement was performed using the multi-wavelength scan at 505 (or 510), 520, 530 and 555nm. The correlation coefficients of the calibrations ranged between 0.9993 and 0.9999 for the 11 anthocyanes. LOQs were all ≤90ng/zone, most even ≤30ng/zone and for pn-3-glc and pg-3-glc even ≤7ng/zone. With regard to the analysis of mv-3-glc in grape seed/marc meal and supplemented animal feed samples, the mean repeatabilities were 1.4% (laboratory 1) and 1.8% (laboratory 2). The intermediate precisions within a laboratory over several months were ≤6.7%. The ruggedness of the method was ≤5.5%. The method was transferred to other sample types. Juice and wine samples, which were from the same plant source, showed a comparable anthocyanin pattern, whereas the pattern was characteristically different between plant sources. Unknown anthocyanin sample components were analyzed via HPTLC-ESI-MS by eluting the zones of interest with the TLC-MS Interface, which was helpful for further characterization of unknowns. An interesting tool was demonstrated by effect-directed analysis with regard to radical scavenging properties and general bioactivity based on detection with Vibrio fischeri bacteria.

Concepts: Ethanol, Mixture, Chromatography, Thin layer chromatography, Vibrio, Separation process, Anthocyanin, 175

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Early detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and markers conveying drug resistance can have a beneficial impact on preventive public-health actions. We describe a new molecular point-of-care (POC) system - Genedrive®- based on a simple sample preparation combined with PCR to provide detection of MTBC and a simultaneous detection of mutation markers in the rpoB gene directly from raw sputa. Hybridization probes were used to report the presence of the key mutations in codons 516, 526, and 531 of the rpoB gene. Sensitivity MTBC and rpoB detection from sputa was assessed using model sputa spiked with known numbers of bacteria prepared from liquid cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The overall sensitivity was 90.8% (95% CI: 81, 96.5) for MTBC detection and 72.3% (95% CI: 59.8, 82.7) for rpoB detection. For samples ≥1,000 CFU/mL sensitivity was 100% for MTBC and 85.7% for rpoB detection while for samples containing ≤100 CFU/mL was 86.4% and 65.9% for MTBC and rpoB detections, respectively. Specificity was shown to be 100% (95% CI: 83.2, 100) for both MTBC and rpoB. Clinical sputum samples were processed using the same protocol and showed good concordance with data generated from the model. Tuberculosis infected subjects with smear samples assessed as scanty or negative were detectable by the Genedrive®. In these paubacillary patients, the performance of Genedrive® was comparable to GeneXpert®. The characteristics of Genedrive® platform make it particularly useful for MTBC detection and rifampicin resistance in low resource setting and reduce the burden of tuberculosis disease.

Concepts: Bacteria, Antibiotic resistance, Tuberculosis, Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Sputum, Rifampicin, 175

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Background Pregnancy rates among infertile women have been reported to increase after hysterosalpingography, but it is unclear whether the type of contrast medium used (oil-based or water-soluble contrast) influences this potential therapeutic effect. Methods We performed a multicenter, randomized trial in 27 hospitals in the Netherlands in which infertile women who were undergoing hysterosalpingography were randomly assigned to undergo this procedure with the use of oil-based or water-based contrast. Subsequently, couples received expectant management or the women underwent intrauterine insemination. The primary outcome was ongoing pregnancy within 6 months after randomization. Outcomes were analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle. Results A total of 1119 women were randomly assigned to hysterosalpingography with oil contrast (557 women) or water contrast (562 women). A total of 220 of 554 women in the oil group (39.7%) and 161 of 554 women in the water group (29.1%) had an ongoing pregnancy (rate ratio, 1.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16 to 1.61; P<0.001), and 214 of 552 women in the oil group (38.8%) and 155 of 552 women in the water group (28.1%) had live births (rate ratio, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.17 to 1.64; P<0.001). Rates of adverse events were low and similar in the two groups. Conclusions Rates of ongoing pregnancy and live births were higher among women who underwent hysterosalpingography with oil contrast than among women who underwent this procedure with water contrast. (Netherlands Trial Register number, NTR3270 .).

Concepts: 175

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Background The combination melphalan-prednisone-thalidomide (MPT) is considered a standard therapy for patients with myeloma who are ineligible for stem-cell transplantation. However, emerging data on the use of lenalidomide and low-dose dexamethasone warrant a prospective comparison of the two approaches. Methods We randomly assigned 1623 patients to lenalidomide and dexamethasone in 28-day cycles until disease progression (535 patients), to the same combination for 72 weeks (18 cycles; 541 patients), or to MPT for 72 weeks (547 patients). The primary end point was progression-free survival with continuous lenalidomide-dexamethasone versus MPT. Results The median progression-free survival was 25.5 months with continuous lenalidomide-dexamethasone, 20.7 months with 18 cycles of lenalidomide-dexamethasone, and 21.2 months with MPT (hazard ratio for the risk of progression or death, 0.72 for continuous lenalidomide-dexamethasone vs. MPT and 0.70 for continuous lenalidomide-dexamethasone vs. 18 cycles of lenalidomide-dexamethasone; P<0.001 for both comparisons). Continuous lenalidomide-dexamethasone was superior to MPT for all secondary efficacy end points, including overall survival (at the interim analysis). Overall survival at 4 years was 59% with continuous lenalidomide-dexamethasone, 56% with 18 cycles of lenalidomide-dexamethasone, and 51% with MPT. Grade 3 or 4 adverse events were somewhat less frequent with continuous lenalidomide-dexamethasone than with MPT (70% vs. 78%). As compared with MPT, continuous lenalidomide-dexamethasone was associated with fewer hematologic and neurologic toxic events, a moderate increase in infections, and fewer second primary hematologic cancers. Conclusions As compared with MPT, continuous lenalidomide-dexamethasone given until disease progression was associated with a significant improvement in progression-free survival, with an overall survival benefit at the interim analysis, among patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma who were ineligible for stem-cell transplantation. (Funded by Intergroupe, Francophone du Myélome and Celgene; FIRST ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00689936 ; European Union Drug Regulating Authorities Clinical Trials number, 2007-004823-39 .).

Concepts: Multiple myeloma, Clinical trial, Cancer, Bone marrow, Thalidomide, Lenalidomide, Dexamethasone, 175

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This FIRST trial final analysis examined survival outcomes in patients with transplant-ineligible newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) treated with lenalidomide and low-dose dexamethasone until disease progression (Rd continuous), Rd for 72 weeks (18 cycles; Rd18), or melphalan, prednisone, and thalidomide (MPT; 72 weeks). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS; primary comparison: Rd continuous vs MPT). Overall survival (OS) was a key secondary endpoint (final analysis prespecified ≥ 60 months' follow-up). Patients were randomized to Rd continuous (n = 535), Rd18 (n = 541), or MPT (n = 547). At a median follow-up of 67 months, PFS was significantly longer with Rd continuous vs MPT (HR, 0.69; 96% CI, 0.59-0.79; P < .00001) and was similarly extended vs Rd18. Median OS was 10 months longer with Rd continuous vs MPT (59.1 vs 49.1 months; HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.63-0.95; P = .0144), and similar with Rd18 (62.3 months). In patients achieving complete or very good partial responses, Rd continuous had a ≈ 30-month-longer median time to next treatment vs Rd18 (69.5 vs 39.9 months). Over half of all patients who received second-line treatment were given a bortezomib-based therapy. Second-line outcomes were improved in patients receiving bortezomib after Rd continuous and Rd18 vs after MPT. No new safety concerns, including risk for secondary malignancies, were observed. Treatment with Rd continuous significantly improved survival outcomes vs MPT, supporting Rd continuous as a standard of care for patients with transplant-ineligible NDMM. Study registration is at Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00689936) and EudraCT (2007-004823-39).

Concepts: Multiple myeloma, Thalidomide, Lenalidomide, Bortezomib, Dexamethasone, 175

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Repair of interstrand crosslinks by the Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway requires both monoubiquitination and de-ubiquitination of the FANCI/FANCD2 (FANCI/D2) complex. In the standing model, the phosphorylation of six sites in the FANCI S/TQ cluster domain occurs upstream of, and promotes, FANCI/D2 monoubiquitination. We generated phospho-specific antibodies against three different S/TQ cluster sites (serines 556, 559, and 565) on human FANCI and found that, in contrast to the standing model, distinct FANCI sites were phosphorylated either predominantly upstream (ubiquitination independent; serine 556) or downstream (ubiquitination-linked; serines 559 and 565) of FANCI/D2 monoubiquitination. Ubiquitination-linked FANCI phosphorylation inhibited FANCD2 de-ubiquitination and bypassed the need to de-ubiquitinate FANCD2 to achieve effective interstrand crosslink repair. USP1 depletion suppressed ubiquitination-linked FANCI phosphorylation despite increasing FANCI/D2 monoubiquitination, providing an explanation of why FANCD2 de-ubiquitination is important for function of the FA pathway. Our work results in a refined model of how FANCI phosphorylation activates the FANCI/D2 complex.

Concepts: Serine, 175, Fanconi anemia