SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

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To investigate clinical characteristics and associations of polydrug abuse among heroin-dependent patients in compulsory isolation settings in China.

Concepts: The Association, Poly drug use, Speedball

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Objective To compare the effects of laboratory-based training in implementation intentions (II; experimental strategy) and verbal rehearsal (VR; control strategy) on self-reported everyday prospective memory among people with Parkinson disease (PD) and to investigate potential correlates of change in self-reported everyday prospective memory in response to this training. Method This was a randomized-controlled trial. Participants with mild to moderate PD without dementia underwent one session of training in either II (n = 25) or VR (n = 27). Then they were instructed to use their strategy as much as possible in their everyday lives to help them remember to do things. The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire Prospective Scale (PRMQ-Pro) administered at baseline and one month after training assessed training-related change in self-reported everyday prospective memory. Baseline depressive symptoms, perceptions of the strategy (credibility, expectancy), prospective memory-related awareness, global cognition, and disease severity were correlated to PRMQ-Pro Change scores (post minus pre) to determine their association with response to training. Results The VR group’s PRMQ-Pro scores declined from pre to post training, while the II group’s remained stable (p = .03). This effect was driven by change in self-cued everyday prospective memory tasks. Higher baseline depressive symptoms, treatment expectancy, and global cognition related to better response to training in the II group (rs ≤ -.40, ps ≤ .05). Conclusions II training may prevent everyday prospective memory decline among people with PD. In addition, people with higher depression, stronger expectations of improvement from strategy training, or better global cognition may benefit the most from II training.

Concepts: Alzheimer's disease, Psychology, Memory, Parkinson's disease, Dementia, Prospective memory, 2003 albums, Retrospective memory

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The role of marine bioaerosols in cloud formation and climate is currently so uncertain that even the sign of the climate forcing is unclear. Marine aerosols form through direct emissions and through the conversion of gasphase emissions to aerosols in the atmosphere. The composition and size of aerosols determine how effective they are in catalyzing the formation of water droplets and ice crystals in clouds by acting as cloud condensation nuclei and ice nucleating particles, respectively. Marine organic aerosols may be sourced both from recent regional phytoplankton blooms that add labile organic matter to the surface ocean and from long-term global processes, such as the upwelling of old refractory dissolved organic matter from the deep ocean. Understanding the formation of marine aerosols and their propensity to catalyze cloud formation processes are challenges that must be addressed given the major uncertainties associated with aerosols in climate models. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Marine Science Volume 10 is January 3, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

Concepts: Precipitation, Climate, Ocean, Phytoplankton, Ice nucleus, Cloud, Cloud seeding, Cloud condensation nuclei

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Memory problems that affect daily functioning are a frequent complaint among Veterans reporting a history of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), especially in cohorts with comorbid PTSD. Here, we test the degree to which subjective sleep impairment and daytime fatigue account for the association of PTSD and self-reported mTBI history with prospective memory.

Concepts: Psychology, Traumatic brain injury, Memory, The Association, Prospective memory, Post-concussion syndrome, PTSD, Concussion

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Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a highly aggressive and generally incurable cancer. Current anti-MPM chemotherapy-based treatments are only marginally effective, and long-term survival remains an unmet goal. Nonetheless, in selected cases, personalized surgery-based multimodality treatments (MMT) have been shown to significantly extend survival. The design of MMT and selection of patients are challenging, and optimal results require accurate presurgical diagnosis, staging, and risk stratification. Further, meticulous surgical techniques and advanced radiation protocols must be applied. We review key principles and evolving concepts in the care of MPM patients with a focus on the expanding role of MMT in MPM. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Medicine Volume 69 is January 29, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

Concepts: Medicine, Cancer, Natural selection, Chemotherapy, Radiation therapy, Physician, Mesothelioma, Selection

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Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) have been evaluated as promising agents in the fight against infectious diseases. HIV-1-specific bNAbs, in particular, have been tested in both preventive and therapeutic modalities. Multiple bNAbs have been isolated, characterized, and assessed in vitro and in vivo, but no single antibody appears to possess the breadth and potency that may be needed if it is to be used in the treatment of HIV-1 infection. With the technological advances of the past decades, novel and more effective bNAbs have been identified or engineered for higher neutralizing potency, greater breadth, and increased serum half-life. In this review, we discuss the development of a new generation of anti-HIV-1 bNAbs and their potential to be used clinically for treatment and prevention of HIV-1 infection. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Medicine Volume 69 is January 29, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

Concepts: Immune system, Antibody, Medicine, Disease, Infectious disease, Infection, In vivo, In vitro

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Survivors of childhood cancer are at increased risk for therapy-related morbidities and mortality. Although the demographic and clinical factors predicting the risk for long-term effects of cancer therapy are well known, the impact of genetic risk for specific late effects is less clearly defined. Here, we review the extant literature and recent research describing genetic modifiers to risk for the more common late effects of childhood cancer therapy. Results of this research support the need for clinical trials that attempt to further refine risk prediction by incorporating genetic testing into existing algorithms that are primarily based on clinical and demographic factors. Confirmation of genetic predisposition, as defined by reproducibility and prospective validation, would permit therapeutic modification and discussion of individualized survivor care plans even at initial cancer diagnosis. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Medicine Volume 69 is January 29, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

Concepts: Scientific method, Medicine, Genetics, Epidemiology, Cancer, The Canon of Medicine, Avicenna, Therapy

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The Affordable Care Act (ACA) was the most significant expansion of health coverage since Medicare and Medicaid were enacted. The law resulted in approximately 13-20 million uninsured persons gaining coverage. Despite these gains, the ACA has numerous shortcomings. For progressives, the ACA was a unique opportunity to provide access to high-quality, comprehensive, equitable health coverage to all persons living in the United States. Using this perspective as our framework, in this review we highlight some of the limitations of the ACA and potential areas for refinement. We conclude that the ACA fell fall short of the goal of achieving universal coverage and that the coverage available through the ACA was not equitable. In addition, the ACA expanded coverage by building onto a highly fragmented, inefficient, and costly health system. Thus, it did little to control health costs. A more fiscally prudent approach would have been built upon more successful existing programs, such as a Medicare for All. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Medicine Volume 69 is January 29, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

Concepts: Health care, Medicare, Health economics, Medicine, Universal health care, Health insurance, Medicaid, Medicare and Medicaid

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The prescribing of opioid analgesics for pain management-particularly for management of chronic noncancer pain (CNCP)-has increased more than fourfold in the United States since the mid-1990s. Yet there is mounting evidence that opioids have only limited effectiveness in the management of CNCP, and the increased availability of prescribed opioids has contributed to upsurges in opioid-related addiction cases and overdose deaths. These concerns have led to critical revisiting and modification of prior pain management practices (e.g., guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), but the much-needed changes in clinical practice will be facilitated by a better understanding of the pharmacology and behavioral effects of opioids that underlie both their therapeutic effects (analgesia) and their adverse effects (addiction and overdose). With these goals in mind, this review first presents an overview of the contemporary problems associated with opioid management of CNCP and the related public health issues of opioid diversion, overdose, and addiction. It then discusses the pharmacology underlying the therapeutic and main adverse effects of opioids and its implications for clinical management of CNCP within the framework of recent clinical guidelines for prescribing opioids in the management of CNCP. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Medicine Volume 69 is January 29, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

Concepts: Therapeutic effect, Medicine, Opioid, Pain, Morphine, Heroin, Analgesic, Ketamine

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People diagnosed with mental illness (hereinafter “consumers”) have higher rates of chronic disease and significantly shorter lives than the wider population. Peer workers have become increasingly involved in facilitating access to physical health care, yet the consumer perspective regarding peer involvement is unknown. This absent voice is needed to inform strategic planning and generate solutions to address the current inequity in health status.

Concepts: Health care, Medicine, Public health, Health, Epidemiology, Medical terms, Illness, Health science