SciCombinator

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Chromosome anomalies and Y chromosome microdeletions are one of the reasons that can be seen in infertile patients and affect fertility. In this study, it was aimed to determine the frequencies of chromosomal anomalies and Y chromosome microdeletions in primary infertile male patients.

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Candida spp. have attracted considerable attention as they cause serious human diseases in immunocompromised individuals. The genomes of the pathogenic Candida spp. have been sequenced, but systemic characterizations of their kinomes are yet to be reported. As in various eukaryotes, the protein kinases play crucial regulatory roles in pathogenicity of Candida. Increased frequency of antifungal resistance in Candida spp. requires significant attention to explore novel therapeutic molecules for their control. The present in-silico study involves novel bioinformatics strategies to identify the kinase proteins and their potential drug targets with the purpose to combat fungal infections. The study reports 103, 107 and 106 kinase proteins from 3 Candida spp., C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis, respectively. Moreover, 79 common kinase proteins were identified, of which 54 proteins play essential roles in Candida spp. and 42 proteins were human non-homologues. Among the essential and human non-homologous protein kinases, 9 were found to be common essential human non-homologues, of which 6 are uniquely present in Candida. These 6 protein kinases namely, Hsl1, Npr1, Ptk2, Kin2, Ksp1 and orf19.3854 (CAALFM_CR06040WA) are involved in various molecular and cellular processes regulating virulence or pathogenicity. Further, these 6 kinases are prioritized as potential drug targets and explored for discovering new lead compounds against candidiasis. The drug repurposing approach for these 6 kinases show 13 approved drugs and investigational compounds that might play substantial inhibitory roles during combating candidiasis.

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Solution-processing methods were investigated as viable alternatives to produce the polymer-bonded barium hexaferrite (BaM). BaM powders were first synthesized by using the sol-gel auto-combustion method. While the ignition period in two synthesis batches varied, the morphology of hexagonal microplates and nanorods, as well as magnetic properties, were reproduced. To prepare magnetic polymer composites, these BaM powders were then incorporated into the acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) matrix with a weight ratio of 80:20, 70:30, and 60:40 by using the solution casting method. Magnetizations were linearly decreased with a reduction in ferrite loading. Compared to the BaM loose powders and pressed pellet, both remanent and saturation magnetizations were lower and gave rise to comparable values of the squareness. The squareness around 0.5 of BaM samples and their composites revealed the isotropic alignment. Interestingly, the coercivity was significantly increased from 1727-1776 Oe in loose BaM powders to 1874-2052 Oe for the BaM-ABS composites. These composites have potential to be implemented in the additive manufacturing of rare-earth-free magnets.

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The dairy Nutrients Requirements of Cattle (NRC) was developed using data from purebred Holsteins and it might not accurately predict the performance of crossbred cattle. Our objectives were to evaluate the effects of two feeding levels (FLs) and three breed compositions (BCs) on nutrient intake, digestibility, performance, and methane (CH4) emissions of prepubertal dairy heifers. We used thirty-six heifers from three BCs: purebred Holstein (H), purebred Gyr (G), and F1 Holstein × Gyr (HG). Each BC had 12 animals and the experiment was designed as twelve incomplete three by three Latin squares, in a factorial arrangement three by two, with three BCs and two FLs (400 and 800 g/day). Total tract nutrient digestibility was determined using total fecal collection and DMI was individually measured. The data were analyzed using the PROC MIXED in SAS. Dry matter intake of all nutrients increased from the medium to high feeding level and the nutrients digestibility coefficients did differ among BCs. Achieved body weight gain in the medium FL treatment was greater than those predicted using the NRC, suggesting that crossbred and Gyr heifers have similar performance to Holsteins. Breed composition does not influence body weight gain of confined dairy heifers, but Holstein heifers fed a medium FL had higher feed efficiency and reduced CH4 emissions intensity.

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In this investigation, sludge fibre waste (SFW) and Kraft lignin powder (KLP) are introduced into polylactic acid (PLA) matrix biocomposites. These alternative materials allow for both the reuse of fibre waste from paper mill sludge and a reduction in the amount of high-cost biopolymer used in the same volume. Proportions from 10 to 40 wt.% of SFW with the addition of 2.5% and 5% of KLP are incorporated in PLA by extrusion and injection moulding. The thermogravimetric properties, water absorption, tensile and flexural properties, and morphology of the fabricated biocomposites were investigated. According to the results, KLP contributes to thermically stabilising the loss resulting from the incorporation of SFW. Flexural and tensile tests reveal a more pronounced decrease in strength with an SFW ratio above 10%. The modulus of elasticity increases significantly with an SFW ratio above 20%. The strength properties are stabilised with the addition of 5% KLP. The addition of KLP presents a tendency to reduce water absorption obtained by the incorporation of SFW into biocomposites. Scanning electron micrographs evidence that KLP improves the interfacial adhesion by reducing the voids between fibres and PLA.

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The MYB transcription factor family is very large and functionally diverse in plants, however, only a few members of this family have been reported and characterized in chili pepper (Capsicum spp.). In the present study, we performed genome-wide analyses of the MYB family in Capsicum annuum, including phylogenetic relationships, conserved domain, gene structure organization, motif protein arrangement, chromosome distribution, chemical properties predictions, RNA-seq expression, and RT-qPCR expression assays. A total of 235 non-redundant MYB proteins were identified from C. annuum, including R2R3-MYB, 3R-MYB, atypical MYB, and MYB-related subclasses. The sequence analysis of CaMYBs compared with other plant MYB proteins revealed gene conservation, but also potential specialized genes. Tissue-specific expression profiles showed that CaMYB genes were differentially expressed, suggesting that they are functionally divergent. Furthermore, the integration of our data allowed us to propose strong CaMYBs candidates to be regulating phenylpropanoid, lignin, capsaicinoid, carotenoid, and vitamin C biosynthesis, providing new insights into the role of MYB transcription factors in secondary metabolism. This study adds valuable knowledge about the functions of CaMYB genes in various processes in the Capsicum genus.

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Person-Centered Care (PCC) is a promising approach towards improved quality of care and cost containment within health systems. It has been evaluated in Sweden and England. This feasibility study examines initial PCC implementation in a rehabilitation hospital for children in Poland.

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The interaction of macrophages with apoptotic cells is required for efficient resolution of inflammation. While apoptotic cell removal prevents inflammation due to secondary necrosis, it also alters the macrophage phenotype to hinder further inflammatory reactions. The interaction between apoptotic cells and macrophages is often studied by chemical or biological induction of apoptosis, which may introduce artifacts by affecting the macrophages as well and/or triggering unrelated signaling pathways. Here, we set up a pure cell death system in which NIH 3T3 cells expressing dimerizable Caspase-8 were co-cultured with peritoneal macrophages in a transwell system. Phenotype changes in macrophages induced by apoptotic cells were evaluated by RNA sequencing, which revealed an unexpectedly dominant impact on macrophage proliferation. This was confirmed in functional assays with primary peritoneal macrophages and IC-21 macrophages. Moreover, inhibition of apoptosis during Zymosan-induced peritonitis in mice decreased mRNA levels of cell cycle mediators in peritoneal macrophages. Proliferation of macrophages in response to apoptotic cells may be important to increase macrophage numbers in order to allow efficient clearance and resolution of inflammation.

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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has emerged to be the greatest threat to humanity in the modern world and has claimed nearly 2.2 million lives worldwide. The United States alone accounts for more than one fourth of 100 million COVID-19 cases across the globe. Although vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 has begun, its efficacy in preventing a new or repeat COVID-19 infection in immunized individuals is yet to be determined. Calls for repurposing of existing, approved, drugs that target the inflammatory condition in COVID-19 are growing. Our initial gene ontology analysis predicts a similarity between SARS-CoV-2 induced inflammatory and immune dysregulation and the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis. Interestingly, many of the drugs related to rheumatoid arthritis have been found to be lifesaving and contribute to lower COVID-19 morbidity. We also performed in silico investigation of binding of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a well-known catechin, and other catechins on viral proteins and identified papain-like protease protein (PLPro) as a binding partner. Catechins bind to the S1 ubiquitin-binding site of PLPro, which might inhibit its protease function and abrogate SARS-CoV-2 inhibitory function on ubiquitin proteasome system and interferon stimulated gene system. In the realms of addressing inflammation and how to effectively target SARS-CoV-2 mediated respiratory distress syndrome, we review in this article the available knowledge on the strategic placement of EGCG in curbing inflammatory signals and how it may serve as a broad spectrum therapeutic in asymptomatic and symptomatic COVID-19 patients.