SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

23

Coeliac disease is an immune-mediated systemic disease triggered by exposure to gluten, and manifested by small intestinal enteropathy and gastrointestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms. Recent guidelines recommend a concerted use of clear definitions of the disease. In Australia, the most recent estimated prevalence is 1.2% in adult men (1:86) and 1.9% in adult women (1:52). Active case finding is appropriate to diagnose coeliac disease in high risk groups. Diagnosis of coeliac disease is important to prevent nutritional deficiency and long term risk of gastrointestinal malignancy. The diagnosis of coeliac disease depends on clinico-pathological correlation: history, presence of antitransglutaminase antibodies, and characteristic histological features on duodenal biopsy (when the patient is on a gluten-containing diet). Human leucocyte antigen class II haplotypes DQ2 or DQ8 are found in nearly all patients with coeliac disease, but are highly prevalent in the general population at large (56% in Australia) and testing can only exclude coeliac disease for individuals with non-permissive haplotypes. Adhering to a gluten free diet allows duodenal mucosal healing and alleviates symptoms. Patients should be followed up with a yearly review of dietary adherence and a health check. Non-coeliac gluten or wheat protein sensitivity is a syndrome characterised by both gastrointestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten and possibly other wheat proteins in people who do not have coeliac disease or wheat allergy recognised by diagnostic tests.

Concepts: Protein, Cancer, Medical terms, Wheat, Coeliac disease, Gluten, Gluten-free diet, Wheat allergy

23

Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) lead to elevation of reactive oxygen species, which can activate the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR) family members containing the pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3)-inf lammasome. In this study, we elucidated whether NLRP3 -inf lammasome is activated by DEPs and whether antioxidants (N-acetylcysteine [NAC]) could inhibit such activation.

Concepts: Protein, Oxygen, Lung, Mitochondrion, Gasoline, Oxidative phosphorylation, Reactive oxygen species, Glutathione

23

Acute decompensated heart failure is a serious and common condition where close monitoring of symptoms, vital signs, haemodynamic and other markers are needed after the patient is admitted to hospital as the in-hospital outcome is poor. This review focuses on advances in the assessment and monitoring of these patients.

Concepts: Medical terms, Patient, Hospital, Cardiology, Heart failure, Physician, Patience, Acute decompensated heart failure

23

Proper treatment of waste-activated sludge (WAS) involves three pivotal processes, dewatering, anaerobic digestion, and pollutants removal, which need to be re-assessed urgently. Although many traditional sludge treatments have been developed, it is prudent to enhance the efficiency of sludge treatment using multifunctional, flexible, and environmentally friendly surfactants. With regard to sludge dewatering, surfactants can weaken the binding interaction between sludge flocs and promote the dissolution of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs), resulting in the release of bound water. Using surfactants in anaerobic digestion promotes the release of enzymes trapped in sludge and improves the activity of enzymes during hydrolysis. Owing to their characteristic encapsulation of hydrophobes into self-assembled aggregates (micelles), surfactants can form host-guest complexes with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Additionally, surfactants can enhance the desorption of heavy metals and prevent the emergence of heavy metal residue. This review summarizes the current surfactant-based sludge treatment technologies according to their roles in sludge disposal solutions. Then, possible mechanisms of surfactants in sludge dewatering, anaerobic digestion, and the removal of organic pollutants and heavy metals are analysed systemically. Finally, changes to sludge treatment via the aid of surfactants are highlighted. This review presents the comprehensive advances in the use of surfactants in WAS reduction, recycling, and risk relief, underscoring their roles in increasing economic efficiency and ensuring environmental quality.

Concepts: Protein, Environment, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Anaerobic digestion, Aromaticity, Heavy metal music, Heavy metal, Tungsten

3

We performed integrative network analyses to identify targets that can be used for effectively treating liver diseases with minimal side effects. We first generated co-expression networks (CNs) for 46 human tissues and liver cancer to explore the functional relationships between genes and examined the overlap between functional and physical interactions. Since increased de novo lipogenesis is a characteristic of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we investigated the liver-specific genes co-expressed with fatty acid synthase (FASN). CN analyses predicted that inhibition of these liver-specific genes decreases FASN expression. Experiments in human cancer cell lines, mouse liver samples, and primary human hepatocytes validated our predictions by demonstrating functional relationships between these liver genes, and showing that their inhibition decreases cell growth and liver fat content. In conclusion, we identified liver-specific genes linked to NAFLD pathogenesis, such as pyruvate kinase liver and red blood cell (PKLR), or to HCC pathogenesis, such as PKLR, patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 (PNPLA3), and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), all of which are potential targets for drug development.

Concepts: Cancer, Fatty acid, Obesity, Cirrhosis, Liver, Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, Fatty liver, Fatty acid synthase

3

Objectives To estimate small for gestational age birth prevalence and attributable neonatal mortality in low and middle income countries with the INTERGROWTH-21(st) birth weight standard.Design Secondary analysis of data from the Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG), including 14 birth cohorts with gestational age, birth weight, and neonatal follow-up. Small for gestational age was defined as infants weighing less than the 10th centile birth weight for gestational age and sex with the multiethnic, INTERGROWTH-21(st) birth weight standard. Prevalence of small for gestational age and neonatal mortality risk ratios were calculated and pooled among these datasets at the regional level. With available national level data, prevalence of small for gestational age and population attributable fractions of neonatal mortality attributable to small for gestational age were estimated.Setting CHERG birth cohorts from 14 population based sites in low and middle income countries.Main outcome measures In low and middle income countries in the year 2012, the number and proportion of infants born small for gestational age; number and proportion of neonatal deaths attributable to small for gestational age; the number and proportion of neonatal deaths that could be prevented by reducing the prevalence of small for gestational age to 10%.Results In 2012, an estimated 23.3 million infants (uncertainty range 17.6 to 31.9; 19.3% of live births) were born small for gestational age in low and middle income countries. Among these, 11.2 million (0.8 to 15.8) were term and not low birth weight (≥2500 g), 10.7 million (7.6 to 15.0) were term and low birth weight (<2500 g) and 1.5 million (0.9 to 2.6) were preterm. In low and middle income countries, an estimated 606 500 (495 000 to 773 000) neonatal deaths were attributable to infants born small for gestational age, 21.9% of all neonatal deaths. The largest burden was in South Asia, where the prevalence was the highest (34%); about 26% of neonatal deaths were attributable to infants born small for gestational age. Reduction of the prevalence of small for gestational age from 19.3% to 10.0% in these countries could reduce neonatal deaths by 9.2% (254 600 neonatal deaths; 164 800 to 449 700).Conclusions In low and middle income countries, about one in five infants are born small for gestational age, and one in four neonatal deaths are among such infants. Increased efforts are required to improve the quality of care for and survival of these high risk infants in low and middle income countries.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Childbirth, Death, Fetus, Demography, Obstetrics, Pediatrics, Live birth

0

The effect of phenanthrene (Phe) on induction of ethoxyresorufinO-deethylase (EROD) activity and oxidative stress was examined in immune organs of yellowfin seabream Acanthopagrus latus. Fish were treated with a single intraperitoneal injection at 2, 20, or 40 mg kg(-1). The Phe concentration in spleen, EROD activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity, ascorbic acid (AsA), total glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (LPO), and protein carbonylation (PC) levels in spleen and head kidney were assessed at one, four, seven, and 14 days post-injection. Dose response relationship was explored for data on day four. Phe concentration reached the highest observed level on day four, showed decline on day seven, and was undetectable at the end of trial. EROD activity in both organs followed the pattern of Phe level in all treated groups. Catalase and SOD activity at low Phe concentrations was significantly higher than controls, while LPO and PC level showed no differences from controls. In contrast, at 20 and 40 mg kg(-1), CAT and SOD activity, an indicator of oxidative stress, was significantly lower than in untreated controls, while AsA, GSH, LPO, and PC levels were higher on days 4 and 7. No parameter of any treatment group in either organ tissue showed difference from control values at the end of the experiment. The SOD and CAT activity in both organs exhibited a biphasic (initial stimulatory effect) effect, whereas other parameters showed a monophasic effect in terms of dose-response. Results suggest that Phe induced CYP1A and antioxidant responses in immune organs.

Concepts: Antioxidant, Oxidative stress, Reactive oxygen species, Superoxide dismutase, Glutathione, Vitamin C, Ascorbic acid, Dose-response relationship

0

The presence of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in wastewater treatment plant effluent poses a potential risk to aquatic ecosystems. Constructed wetlands have recently been used to control PhACs. However, the microbial communities that are involved in these processes have not been comprehensively investigated. This study aimed to evaluate the removal of PhACs and microbial response in constructed wetlands during the treatment of PhACs. The effects of PhACs on bacterial communities in constructed wetland mesocosms were analyzed by Illumina MiSeq sequencing technology. Results indicated that removal efficiencies of PhACs were enhanced over time, and constructed wetlands offer higher removal efficiencies for the PhACs studied compared to conventional wastewater treatment plants. Plants improved microbial richness and diversity while both indices were negatively correlated with PhAC concentrations ranging from 30 to 500 μg/L in constructed wetland mesocosms. The microbial communities of the constructed wetland mesocosms were dominated by Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Bacteroidetes under PhAC exposure, while Desulfobulbus and Treponema were the dominant genera. In particular, Proteobacteria were correlated with PhAC concentrations. Overall, this study provides valuable microbial community ecology data to understand how microbial populations respond to PhAC stress in constructed wetlands.

Concepts: Bacteria, Microbiology, Water pollution, Marsh, Wetland, Sewage treatment, Wastewater, Constructed wetland

0

In this study, we evaluated the bioaccumulation of neonicotinoid insecticides in the earthworm Eisenia andrei exposed to environmental concentrations (<200 ng g(-1) dry weight, nominal concentration) in an artificial soil. We tested the selectivity for neonicotinoids by exposing earthworms to 7 neonicotinoids alone and in more complex mixtures of 54 pesticides then 69 organic contaminants (OCs) (54 pesticides and 15 pharmaceuticals). We applied long-term (56-day) toxicity tests to further evaluate the effect of OCs on earthworms. We monitored adult survival, adult DNA damage using a comet assay on earthworm coelomocyte cells, and reproduction performance (i.e. number of cocoons and number and dry weight of juveniles). A selective bioaccumulation of neonicotinoid insecticides in adult and juvenile earthworms was found. This bioaccumulation is concomitant with a significant increase in adult DNA damage and significant effects on reproduction when earthworms were exposed to neonicotinoid insecticides alone. This study reveals a new potential point of entry of neonicotinoid insecticides into the wildlife food chain and also shows that E. andrei reproduction could be affected by long-term exposure to environmental concentrations of OCs.

Concepts: Hermaphrodite, Insecticide, Earthworm, Lumbricidae, Annelids, Humus

0

The toxicity induced by the pesticide 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1,-trichloroethane (DDT) and its derivative 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE) has been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation and respiratory chain electron transport, intracellular ion imbalance, generation of reactive oxygen species and impairment of the antioxidant defense system. A disruption in the cellular redox status causes protein Cys-based regulatory shifts that influence the activity of many proteins and trigger signal transduction alterations. Here, we analyzed the ability of p,p'-DDE to alter the activities of hepatic antioxidants and glycolytic enzymes to investigate the oxidative stress generation in the liver of p,p'-DDE-fed M. spretus mice. We also determined the consequences of the treatment on the redox status in the thiol Cys groups. The data indicate that the liver of p,p'-DDE exposed mice lacks certain protective enzymes, and p,p'-DDE caused a metabolic reprogramming that increased the glycolytic rate and disturbed the metabolism of lipids. Our results suggested that the overall metabolism of the liver was altered because important signaling pathways are controlled by p,p'-DDE-deregulated proteins. The histological data support the proposed metabolic consequences of the p,p'-DDE exposure.

Concepts: Metabolism, Adenosine triphosphate, Mitochondrion, Antioxidant, Oxidative phosphorylation, Cellular respiration, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, Electron transport chain