SciCombinator

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To investigate sex differences in risk factors for incident myocardial infarction (MI) and whether they vary with age.

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To compare the rate of moderate to severe exacerbations between triple therapy and dual therapy or monotherapy in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

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Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a devastating disease with poor patient survival. As targetable mutations in AML are rare, novel oncogenic mechanisms are needed to define new therapeutic targets. We identified AML cells that exhibit an aberrant pool of nuclear glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β). This nuclear fraction drives AML growth and drug resistance. Nuclear, but not cytoplasmic, GSK3β enhances AML colony formation and AML growth in mouse models. Nuclear GSK3β drives AML partially by promoting nuclear localization of the NF-κB subunit, p65. Finally, nuclear GSK3β localization has clinical significance as it strongly correlates to worse patient survival (n = 86; hazard ratio = 2.2; P < .01) and mediates drug resistance in cell and animal models. Nuclear localization of GSK3β may define a novel oncogenic mechanism in AML and represent a new therapeutic target.

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To assess the effect of a one to one intervention by a nurse on the outcomes of patients undergoing Total Knee Replacement (TNR) surgery.

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The main complication of replacement therapy with factor in hemophilia A (HemA) is the formation of inhibitors (neutralizing anti-factor VIII [FVIII] antibodies) in ∼30% of severe HemA patients. Because these inhibitors render replacement FVIII treatment essentially ineffective, preventing or eliminating them is of top priority in disease management. The extended half-life recombinant FVIII Fc fusion protein (rFVIIIFc) is an approved therapy for HemA patients. In addition, it has been reported that rFVIIIFc may induce tolerance to FVIII more readily than FVIII alone in HemA patients that have developed inhibitors. Given that the immunoglobulin G1 Fc region has the potential to interact with immune cells expressing Fc receptors (FcRs) and thereby affect the immune response to rFVIII, we investigated how human macrophages, expressing both FcRs and receptors reported to bind FVIII, respond to rFVIIIFc. We show herein that rFVIIIFc, but not rFVIII, uniquely skews macrophages toward an alternatively activated regulatory phenotype. rFVIIIFc initiates signaling events that result in morphological changes, as well as a specific gene expression and metabolic profile that is characteristic of the regulatory type Mox/M2-like macrophages. Further, these changes are dependent on rFVIIIFc-FcR interactions. Our findings elucidate mechanisms of potential immunomodulatory properties of rFVIIIFc.

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Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is a potentially curative treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Optimal conditioning intensity for allo-HCT for CML in the era of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) is unknown. Using the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research database, we sought to determine whether reduced-intensity/nonmyeloablative conditioning (RIC) allo-HCT and myeloablative conditioning (MAC) result in similar outcomes in CML patients. We evaluated 1395 CML allo-HCT recipients between the ages of 18 and 60 years. The disease status at transplant was divided into the following categories: chronic phase 1, chronic phase 2 or greater, and accelerated phase. Patients in blast phase at transplant and alternative donor transplants were excluded. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS) after allo-HCT. MAC (n = 1204) and RIC allo-HCT recipients (n = 191) from 2007 to 2014 were included. Patient, disease, and transplantation characteristics were similar, with a few exceptions. Multivariable analysis showed no significant difference in OS between MAC and RIC groups. In addition, leukemia-free survival and nonrelapse mortality did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. Compared with MAC, the RIC group had a higher risk of early relapse after allo-HCT (hazard ratio [HR], 1.85; P = .001). The cumulative incidence of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) was lower with RIC than with MAC (HR, 0.77; P = .02). RIC provides similar survival and lower cGVHD compared with MAC and therefore may be a reasonable alternative to MAC for CML patients in the TKI era.

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Activating MYD88 mutations are present in 95% of Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) patients, and trigger NF-κB through BTK and IRAK. The BTK inhibitor ibrutinib is active in MYD88-mutated (MYD88 MUT ) WM patients, but shows lower activity in MYD88 wild-type (MYD88 WT ) disease. MYD88 WT patients also show shorter overall survival, and increased risk of disease transformation in some series. The genomic basis for these findings remains to be clarified. We performed whole exome and transcriptome sequencing of sorted tumor samples from 18 MYD88 WT patients and compared findings with WM patients with MYD88 MUT disease. We identified somatic mutations predicted to activate NF-κB (TBL1XR1, PTPN13, MALT1, BCL10, NFKB2, NFKBIB, NFKBIZ, and UDRL1F), impart epigenomic dysregulation (KMT2D, KMT2C, and KDM6A), or impair DNA damage repair (TP53, ATM, and TRRAP). Predicted NF-κB activating mutations were downstream of BTK and IRAK, and many overlapped with somatic mutations found in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. A distinctive transcriptional profile in MYD88 WT WM was identified, although most differentially expressed genes overlapped with MYD88 MUT WM consistent with the many clinical and morphological characteristics that are shared by these WM subgroups. Overall survival was adversely affected by mutations in DNA damage response in MYD88 WT WM patients. The findings depict genomic and transcriptional events associated with MYD88 WT WM and provide mechanistic insights for disease transformation, decreased ibrutinib activity, and novel drug approaches for this population.

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Platelet α-granule cargo release is fundamental to both hemostasis and thrombosis. Granule matrix hydration is a key regulated step in this process, yet its mechanism is poorly understood. In endothelial cells, there is evidence for 2 modes of cargo release: a jack-in-the-box mechanism of hydration-dependent protein phase transitions and an actin-driven granule constriction/extrusion mechanism. The third alternative considered is a prefusion, channel-mediated granule swelling, analogous to the membrane “ballooning” seen in procoagulant platelets. Using thrombin-stimulated platelets from a set of secretion-deficient, soluble N-ethylmaleimide factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) mutant mice and various ultrastructural approaches, we tested predictions of these mechanisms to distinguish which best explains the α-granule release process. We found that the granule decondensation/hydration required for cargo expulsion was (1) blocked in fusion-protein-deficient platelets; (2) characterized by a fusion-dependent transition in granule size in contrast to a preswollen intermediate; (3) determined spatially with α-granules located close to the plasma membrane (PM) decondensing more readily; (4) propagated from the site of granule fusion; and (5) traced, in 3-dimensional space, to individual granule fusion events at the PM or less commonly at the canalicular system. In sum, the properties of α-granule decondensation/matrix hydration strongly indicate that α-granule cargo expulsion is likely by a jack-in-the-box mechanism rather than by gradual channel-regulated water influx or by a granule-constriction mechanism. These experiments, in providing a structural and mechanistic basis for cargo expulsion, should be informative in understanding the α-granule release reaction in the context of hemostasis and thrombosis.

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Systemic mastocytosis (SM) is a clinically heterogeneous disease with prognosis chiefly assigned based on World Health Organization (WHO) morphologic subclassification. We assessed the feasibility of developing contemporary risk models for SM based on clinical and integrated clinical-genetics information. Diagnosis of SM was per WHO criteria, and karyotype and next-generation sequencing data were available in a subset of the total 580 patients (median age, 55 years; range, 18-88 years) seen at the Mayo Clinic between 1968 and 2015. Morphologic subcategories were indolent/smoldering in 291 (50%) and “advanced” in 289 (50%): SM with an associated hematological neoplasm in 199, aggressive SM in 85, and mast cell leukemia in 5. Multivariable analysis of clinical variables identified age >60 years, advanced SM, thrombocytopenia <150 × 109/L, anemia below sex-adjusted normal, and increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as independent risk factors for survival; respective hazard ratios (HRs) 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were 2.5 (1.9-3.4), 2.7 (1.8-4.0), 2.5 (1.9-3.4), 2.2 (1.6-3.1), and 2.1 (1.5-3.0). In addition, ASXL1 (HR, 4.5; 95% CI, 2.6-7.6), RUNX1 (HR, 4.3; 95% CI, 1.3-10.8), and NRAS (HR, 5.0, 95% CI, 1.5-13.2) mutations were independently associated with inferior survival. Combined clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular risk factor analysis confirmed the independent prognostic contribution of adverse mutations (2.6, 1.6-4.4), advanced SM (4.0, 1.8-10.0), thrombocytopenia (2.8, 1.7-4.5), increased ALP (2.1, 1.2-4.0), and age >60 years (2.2, 1.3-3.6). These data were subsequently used to develop clinical and hybrid clinical-molecular risk models. The current study advances 2 complementary risk models for SM and highlights the independent prognostic contribution of mutations.

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Platelet-associated complications including thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, and hemorrhage are commonly observed during various inflammatory diseases such as sepsis, inflammatory bowel disease, and psoriasis. Despite the reported evidence on numerous mechanisms/molecules that may contribute to the dysfunction of platelets, the primary mechanisms that underpin platelet-associated complications during inflammatory diseases are not fully established. Here, we report the discovery of formyl peptide receptor 2, FPR2/ALX, in platelets and its primary role in the development of platelet-associated complications via ligation with its ligand, LL37. LL37 acts as a powerful endogenous antimicrobial peptide, but it also regulates innate immune responses. We demonstrate the impact of LL37 in the modulation of platelet reactivity, hemostasis, and thrombosis. LL37 activates a range of platelet functions, enhances thrombus formation, and shortens the tail bleeding time in mice. By utilizing a pharmacological inhibitor and Fpr2/3 (an ortholog of human FPR2/ALX)-deficient mice, the functional dependence of LL37 on FPR2/ALX was determined. Because the level of LL37 is increased in numerous inflammatory diseases, these results point toward a critical role for LL37 and FPR2/ALX in the development of platelet-related complications in such diseases. Hence, a better understanding of the clinical relevance of LL37 and FPR2/ALX in diverse pathophysiological settings will pave the way for the development of improved therapeutic strategies for a range of thromboinflammatory diseases.