SciCombinator

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Ghrelin agonists are emerging prokinetic agents for treating gastroparesis. Although recent clinical trials have demonstrated their efficacy in patients with diabetic gastroparesis (DG), the impact of such agents on symptoms and gastric dysmotility remains unclear. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ghrelin agonists in patients with DG.

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Contemporary failure etiologies of primary total hip arthroplasties (THAs) have not been precisely defined because of heterogeneity of referral practices.

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Despite the widespread use of arthroscopic double-row transosseous-equivalent (TOE) rotator cuff repair (RCR) techniques, midterm outcome data are limited. The purpose of this article was to assess midterm clinical outcomes of patients following arthroscopic TOE RCR using either a knotless tape bridge (TB) repair or knotted suture bridge (SB) repair technique. We hypothesized that there would be significant improvements in patient-reported outcomes with TOE RCR that would be durable over time. We also hypothesized that the knotless TB technique would yield equivalent clinical results to the knotted SB technique, but that there would be differences in retear types between the two TOE techniques.

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The Spectrum/AIM model is used by national programs and UNAIDS to prepare annual estimates of the status of the HIV epidemic in 170 countries. The model and assumptions are updated regularly under the guidance of the UNAIDS Reference Group on Estimates, Modelling and Projections in response to new data, studies and program needs. This article describes the most recent updates for the 2018 round of estimates.

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The use of routinely collected data from prevention of mother-to-child transmission programs (ANC-RT) has been proposed to monitor HIV epidemic trends. This poses several challenges for surveillance, one of them being that women may opt-out of testing and/or test stock-outs may result in inconsistent service availability. In this study, we sought to empirically quantify the relationship between imperfect HIV testing coverage and HIV prevalence among pregnant women from ANC-RT data.

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We hypothesized that torsemide and furosemide, at approximately equipotent dosages (similar diuresis), would have comparable effects on the circulating renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.

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The GloPID-R (Global Research Collaboration for Infectious Disease Preparedness) chikungunya (CHIKV), o'nyong-nyong (ONNV) and Mayaro virus (MAYV) Working Group has been established to investigate natural history, epidemiology and clinical aspects of infection by these viruses. Here, we present a report dedicated to entomological aspects of CHIKV, ONNV and MAYV. Recent global expansion of chikungunya virus has been possible because CHIKV established a transmission cycle in urban settings using anthropophilic vectors such as Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti. MAYV and ONNV have a more limited geographic distribution, being confined to Africa (ONNV) and central-southern America (MAYV). ONNV is probably maintained through an enzootic cycle that has not been characterized yet, with Anopheles species as main vectors and humans as amplification hosts during epidemics. MAYV is transmitted by Haemagogus species in an enzootic cycle using non-human primates as the main amplification and maintenance hosts, and humans becoming sporadically infected when venturing in or nearby forest habitats. Here, we focused on the transmission cycle and natural vectors that sustain circulation of these viruses in their respective locations. The knowledge of the natural ecology of transmission and the capacity of different vectors to transmit these viruses is crucial to understand CHIKV emergence, and to assess the risk that MAYV and ONNV will expand on wide scale using anthropophilic mosquito species not normally considered primary vectors. Finally, the experts identified knowledge gaps and provided adapted recommendations, in order to address future entomological investigations in the right direction.

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Hydroxycitronellal dimethyl acetal was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity/photoallergenicity, skin sensitization, and environmental safety. Data from read-across analog hydroxycitronellal diethyl acetal (CAS # 7779-94-4) show that hydroxycitronellal dimethyl acetal is not expected to be genotoxic. The repeated dose, reproductive, and local respiratory toxicity endpoints were evaluated using the TTC for a Cramer Class I material and the exposure to hydroxycitronellal dimethyl acetal is below the TTC (0.03 mg/kg/day, 0.03 mg/kg/day, and 1.4 mg/day, respectively). Data from hydroxycitronellal dimethyl acetal and from read-across material hydroxycitronellal diethyl acetal (CAS # 7779-94-4) show that there are no safety concerns for skin sensitization under the current declared levels of use. The phototoxicity/photoallergenicity endpoints were evaluated based on UV spectra; hydroxycitronellal dimethyl acetal is not expected to be phototoxic/photoallergenic. The environmental endpoints were evaluated; hydroxycitronellal dimethyl acetal was found not to be PBT as per the IFRA Environmental Standards, and its risk quotients, based on its current volume of use in Europe and North America (i.e., PEC/PNEC), are <1.

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Newly formed B cells (NF-B cells) that emerge from the bone marrow to the periphery have often been referred to as immature or transitional B cells. However, NF-B cells have several striking characteristics, including a distinct BCR repertoire, high expression of AID, high sensitivity to PAMPs, and the ability to produce cytokines. A number of findings do not support their designation as immature because NF-B cells have the potential to become Ab-producing cells and to undergo class-switch recombination. In this review, we provide a fresh perspective on NF-B cell functions and describe some of the signals driving their activation. We summarize growing evidence supporting a role for NF-B cells in protection against infections and as a potential source of autoantibody-producing cells in autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus.

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