Association of maternal diseases during pregnancy with the risk of single ventricular septal defects in the offspring - a population-based case-control study.
The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine : the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians | 5 Dec 2012
M Csáky-Szunyogh, A Vereczkey, Z Kósa, R Urbán and AE Czeizel
Abstract Objective. In general the analytical epidemiological studies evaluated cases with congenital heart defects together. However, different congenital heart defect entities have different etiology, and in the vast majority of patients the underlying causes are unclear. Thus the objective of the study was to evaluate the possible etiological factors in the origin of single ventricular septal defect (VSD) after surgical intervention or lethal outcome, i.e. as homogeneous as possible. Method. In the population-based large dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities acute and chronic maternal diseases with related drug treatments and pregnancy supplements in early pregnancy were evaluated in the mothers of 1,661 cases with isolated/single VSD and their 2,534 matched and 38,151 all controls without defect, and 19,833 malformed controls with other isolated non-cardiac defect. Results. There was a higher risk of VSD in the children of mothers with high fever related influenza during the critical period of VSD and this risk was limited by antifever therapy. In addition paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia and epilepsy treated with anticonvulsant drugs associated with higher risk of VSD. Finally the high doses of folic acid alone in early pregnancy Conclusions. H high fever related maternal diseases may have a role in the origin of VSD which is preventable with antifever drug therapy, and the high doses of folic acid in early pregnancy were able to reduce the risk of VSD.
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