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Gassing in Li(4)Ti(5)O(12)-based batteries and its remedy.

OPEN Scientific reports | 5 Dec 2012

YB He, B Li, M Liu, C Zhang, W Lv, C Yang, J Li, H Du, B Zhang, QH Yang, JK Kim and F Kang
Abstract
Destructive gas generation with associated swelling has been a major challenge to the large-scale application of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) made from Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) (LTO) anodes. Here we report root causes of the gassing behavior, and suggest remedy to suppress it. The generated gases mainly contain H(2), CO(2) and CO, which originate from interfacial reactions between LTO and surrounding alkyl carbonate solvents. The reactions occur at the very thin outermost surface of LTO (111) plane, which result in transformation from (111) to (222) plane and formation of (101) plane of anatase TiO(2). A nanoscale carbon coating along with a stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) film around LTO is seen most effective as a barrier layer in suppressing the interfacial reaction and resulting gassing from the LTO surface. Such an ability to tune the interface nanostructure of electrodes has practical implications in the design of next-generation high power LIBs.
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Concepts
Lithium battery, Lithium, Lithium-ion battery, Cathode, Rechargeable battery, Battery, Solid, Electrochemistry
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