Multimodal noninvasive and invasive imaging of extracranial venous abnormalities indicative of CCSVI: results of the PREMiSe pilot study
OPEN BMC neurology | 22 Oct 2013
R Zivadinov, Y Karmon, K Dolic, J Hagemeier, K Marr, V Valnarov, CL Kennedy, D Hojnacki, EM Carl, LN Hopkins, EI Levy, B Weinstock-Guttman and AH Siddiqui
There is no established noninvasive or invasive diagnostic imaging modality at present that can serve as a ‘gold standard’ or “benchmark” for the detection of the venous anomalies, indicative of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI). We investigated teh sensitivity and specificity of 2 invasive vs. 2 noninvasive imaging techniques for the detection of extracranial venous anomalies in the internal jugular veins (IJVs) and azygos vein/vertebral veins (VVs) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS).
* Data courtesy of Altmetric.com