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Trichoderma reesei Rad51 tolerates mismatches in hybrid meiosis with diverse genome sequences

OPEN Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | 18 Feb 2021

WC Li, CY Lee, WH Lan, TT Woo, HC Liu, HY Yeh, HY Chang, YC Chuang, CY Chen, CN Chuang, CL Chen, YP Hsueh, HW Li, P Chi and TF Wang
Abstract
Most eukaryotes possess two RecA-like recombinases (ubiquitous Rad51 and meiosis-specific Dmc1) to promote interhomolog recombination during meiosis. However, some eukaryotes have lost Dmc1. Given that mammalian and yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc) Dmc1 have been shown to stabilize recombination intermediates containing mismatches better than Rad51, we used the Pezizomycotina filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei to address if and how Rad51-only eukaryotes conduct interhomolog recombination in zygotes with high sequence heterogeneity. We applied multidisciplinary approaches (next- and third-generation sequencing technology, genetics, cytology, bioinformatics, biochemistry, and single-molecule biophysics) to show that T. reesei Rad51 (TrRad51) is indispensable for interhomolog recombination during meiosis and, like ScDmc1, TrRad51 possesses better mismatch tolerance than ScRad51 during homologous recombination. Our results also indicate that the ancestral TrRad51 evolved to acquire ScDmc1-like properties by creating multiple structural variations, including via amino acid residues in the L1 and L2 DNA-binding loops.
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