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JM Dan, J Mateus, Y Kato, KM Hastie, ED Yu, CE Faliti, A Grifoni, SI Ramirez, S Haupt, A Frazier, C Nakao, V Rayaprolu, SA Rawlings, B Peters, F Krammer, V Simon, EO Saphire, DM Smith, D Weiskopf, A Sette and S Crotty
Abstract
Understanding immune memory to SARS-CoV-2 is critical for improving diagnostics and vaccines, and for assessing the likely future course of the COVID-19 pandemic. We analyzed multiple compartments of circulating immune memory to SARS-CoV-2 in 254 samples from 188 COVID-19 cases, including 43 samples at ≥ 6 months post-infection. IgG to the Spike protein was relatively stable over 6+ months. Spike-specific memory B cells were more abundant at 6 months than at 1 month post symptom onset. SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells declined with a half-life of 3-5 months. By studying antibody, memory B cell, CD4+ T cell, and CD8+ T cell memory to SARS-CoV-2 in an integrated manner, we observed that each component of SARS-CoV-2 immune memory exhibited distinct kinetics.
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