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XF Li, J Wu, Y Zhou and XL Zhao
Abstract
Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics and early identification of spontaneous rupture of uterus caused by placenta percreta. Methods: The clinical data of 12 patients with spontaneous uterine rupture caused by placenta percreta and admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from June 2014 to December 2019 were collected. The age, gestational age, gestational history, clinical manifestations, diagnostic methods, uterine operation history, rupture location, surgical method, treatment and outcome were analyzed. Results: (1) General condition: the median age of pregnant women was 37 years (range: 30-43 years), and the median gestational week of uterine rupture was 29+6 weeks (range: 18+3-36+3 weeks). (2) Clinical manifestation: among the 12 pregnant women, 9 showed different degrees of abdominal pain; chest distress accompanied by waist soreness, abdominal distension in 2 cases; one asymptomatic pregnant women was found with uterine rupture during elective cesarean section. Preoperative color Doppler ultrasonography indicated that 9 of the 12 pregnant women had peritoneal effusion, and 6 of them underwent diagnostic peritoneal puncture or posterior vault puncture for non-clotting blood extraction. (3) Uterine operation history and rupture location: among the 12 cases of spontaneous rupture of uterus caused by placenta percreta pregnant women, 10 had placenta previa after cesarean section, including 4 cases of rupture at the incision of the original cesarean section, 3 cases of rupture at the penetrating placental implantation of the lower segment of the anterior wall of the uterus, and 1 case of placenta percreta occurred at the myomectomy site of the right angle of the uterus. Among the 2 pregnant women with spontaneous uterine rupture caused by penetrating placental implantation without a history of cesarean section, 1 case with history of multiple abortions, and uterine rupture occurred at the bottom of the palace, 1 had rupture of placental penetrating implantation after hysteroscopic electroresection of endometrial polyps, and the uterine rupture occurred at the anterior wall of the lower segment of the uterus. (4) Maternal and fetal outcomes: 11 pregnant women were injected with suspension RBC and 1 pregnant woman was not injected with blood products. Nine cases underwent hysteroplasty and 3 cases underwent subtotal hysterectomy. There were 11 maternal survivors and 1 maternal death; 7 neonates survived and 6 stillbirths. Conclusions: Uterine rupture caused by placenta percreta is of great harm to mother and infant, due to its heterogeneity in clinical manifestations, which increases the possibility of misdiagnosis. For pregnant women with risk factors of placenta percreta, early diagnosis should be made during pregnancy. For those who have been diagnosed with placenta percreta, when there is typical or atypical uterine rupture, doctors should be alert to the occurrence of uterine rupture.
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