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Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation of Oral Health Literacy Instrument (OHLI) for Malaysian Adults

OPEN International journal of environmental research and public health | 1 Aug 2020

MZ Ramlay, N Saddki, MM Tin-Oo and WN Arifin
Abstract
Currently, the availability of a functional oral health literacy instrument in the Malay language is limited. This study aimed to cross-culturally adapt Oral Health Literacy Instrument (OHLI) into the Malay language and to determine its psychometric properties in Malaysian adults. Cross-cultural adaptation of the OHLI into the Malay version (OHLI-M) was conducted according to a guideline, followed by a cross-sectional study among outpatients in a selected health clinic. The psychometric evaluations were the comparison of the OHLI-M scores by education levels and last dental visits, the correlation of the reading comprehension section of OHLI-M with the Malay version of the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA-M), the correlation of OHLI-M with decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) and Community Periodontal Index (CPI), and the test-retest reliability of OHLI-M. A total of 195 outpatients participated in this study. The OHLI-M scores were significantly different between participants with different levels of education and timing since last dental visit. Participants with lower secondary school qualification and below, and those whose last dental visit was more than two years ago or never, had significantly lower OHLI-M scores. There was a positive correlation between the reading comprehension scores of the OHLI-M and the S-TOFHLA-M (Spearman’s rho = 0.37, p < 0.001). There was no significant correlation between the OHLI-M scores and the DMFT index scores or the CPI scores. The internal consistency was good (Cronbach's alpha = 0.83 to 0.88). The test-retest reliability was excellent (intraclass correlation = 0.80 to 0.86). The OHLI-M showed good validity and reliability among adults in Malaysia.
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