COVID-19 and Thrombotic or Thromboembolic Disease: Implications for Prevention, Antithrombotic Therapy, and Follow-up
OPEN Journal of the American College of Cardiology | 21 Apr 2020
B Bikdeli, MV Madhavan, D Jimenez, T Chuich, I Dreyfus, E Driggin, C Nigoghossian, W Ageno, M Madjid, Y Guo, LV Tang, Y Hu, J Giri, M Cushman, I Quéré, EP Dimakakos, CM Gibson, G Lippi, EJ Favaloro, J Fareed, JA Caprini, AJ Tafur, JR Burton, DP Francese, EY Wang, A Falanga, C McLintock, BJ Hunt, AC Spyropoulos, GD Barnes, JW Eikelboom, I Weinberg, S Schulman, M Carrier, G Piazza, JA Beckman, PG Steg, GW Stone, S Rosenkranz, SZ Goldhaber, SA Parikh, M Monreal, HM Krumholz, SV Konstantinides, JI Weitz and GYH Lip
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a viral respiratory illness caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), may predispose patients to thrombotic disease, both in the venous and arterial circulations, due to excessive inflammation, platelet activation, endothelial dysfunction, and stasis. In addition, many patients receiving antithrombotic therapy for thrombotic disease may develop COVID-19, which can have implications for choice, dosing, and laboratory monitoring of antithrombotic therapy. Moreover, during a time with much focus on COVID-19, it is critical to consider how to optimize the available technology to care for patients without COVID-19 who have thrombotic disease. Herein, we review the current understanding of the pathogenesis, epidemiology, management and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 who develop venous or arterial thrombosis, and of those with preexisting thrombotic disease who develop COVID-19, or those who need prevention or care for their thrombotic disease during the COVID-19 pandemic.
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