OPEN Nature reviews. Immunology | 7 Mar 2020
MG Netea, J Domínguez-Andrés, LB Barreiro, T Chavakis, M Divangahi, E Fuchs, LAB Joosten, JWM van der Meer, MM Mhlanga, WJM Mulder, NP Riksen, A Schlitzer, JL Schultze, C Stabell Benn, JC Sun, RJ Xavier and E Latz
Immune memory is a defining feature of the acquired immune system, but activation of the innate immune system can also result in enhanced responsiveness to subsequent triggers. This process has been termed ‘trained immunity’, a de facto innate immune memory. Research in the past decade has pointed to the broad benefits of trained immunity for host defence but has also suggested potentially detrimental outcomes in immune-mediated and chronic inflammatory diseases. Here we define ‘trained immunity’ as a biological process and discuss the innate stimuli and the epigenetic and metabolic reprogramming events that shape the induction of trained immunity.
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