OPEN Journal of the American College of Cardiology | 20 Nov 2019
J George, M Hussain, T Vadiveloo, S Ireland, P Hopkinson, AD Struthers, PT Donnan, F Khan and CC Lang
E-cigarette (EC) use is increasing exponentially worldwide. The early cardiovascular effects of switching from tobacco cigarettes (TC) to EC in chronic smokers is unknown. Meta-analysis of flow-mediated dilation (FMD) studies indicate 13% lower pooled, adjusted relative risks of cardiovascular events with every 1% improvement in FMD.
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