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Y Zhang, Z Fang, R Li, X Huang and Q Liu
Abstract
Cancer vaccines have been extensively studied in recent years and have contributed to exceptional achievements in cancer treatment. They are some of the most newly developed vaccines, although only two are currently approved for use, Provenge and Talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC). Despite the approval of these two vaccines, most vaccines have been terminated at the clinical trial stage, which indicates that although they are effective in theory, concerns still exist, including low antigenicity of targeting antigens and tumor heterogeneity. In recent years, with new understanding of the biological function and vaccine potential of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), their potential application in cancer vaccine design deserves our attention. Therefore, this review focuses on the mechanisms, advantages, and prospects of OMVs as antigen-carrier vaccines in cancer vaccine development. We believe that OMV-based vaccines present a safe and effective cancer therapeutic option with broad application prospects.
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