OPEN Journal of clinical medicine | 11 Sep 2019
A Vinturache, J Popoola and I Watt-Coote
Pregnancy-related acute kidney injury (PR-AKI) is a heterogeneous disorder with multiple aetiologies that can occur at any time throughout pregnancy and the post-partum period. PR-AKI is an important obstetric complication that is associated with significant maternal and foetal morbidity and mortality. Although there has been an overall decline in the incidence of PR-AKI worldwide, a recent shift in the occurrence of this disease has been reported. Following improvements in obstetric care, PR-AKI incidence has been reduced in developing countries, whereas an increase in PR-AKI incidence has been reported in developed countries. Awareness of the physiological adaptations of the renal system is essential for the diagnosis and management of kidney impairment in pregnancy. In this review we scrutinize the factors that have contributed to the changing epidemiology of PR-AKI and discuss challenges in the diagnosis and management of acute kidney injury (AKI) in pregnancy from an obstetrics perspective. Thereafter we provide brief discussions on the diagnostic approach of certain PR-AKI aetiologies and summarize key therapeutic measures.
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