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E Ponterio, S Mariotti, C Tabolacci, FM Ruggeri and R Nisini
Abstract
Norovirus (NoV) is now recognized as a major cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks, worldwide. Norovirus replication mechanisms are still poorly understood, mainly because a reliable cell culture system is still lacking. The present study aims at understanding some aspects of the immune response against norovirus, and particularly the capacity of virus like particles (VLPs) from an Italian strain, belonging to the GII.4 genotype predominating worldwide, to interact with target cells via Toll Like Receptors (TLRs). The capacity of GII.4 NoV VLPs to interact and cause the activation of TLR2, 4 and 5 was studied in recombinant HEK cells. The results obtained show the ability of GII.4 NoV VLPs to induce activation of TLR2 and 5. The results on TLRs activation confirm that GII.4 NoV VLPs interact with human intestinal cells and that TLR2 and 5 may represent putative receptors.
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