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I Gotman, D Ben-David, RE Unger, T Böse, EY Gutmanas and C James Kirkpatrick
Abstract
Bone tissue regeneration in load-bearing regions of the body requires high strength porous scaffolds capable of supporting angiogenesis and osteogenesis. 70% porous Nitinol (NiTi) scaffolds with a regular 3-D architecture resembling trabecular bone were produced from Ni foams using an original reactive vapor infiltration technique. The ‘trabecular Nitinol’ scaffolds possessed a high compressive strength of 79 MPa and high permeability of 6.9x10(-6) cm(2). The scaffolds were further modified to produce a near Ni-free surface layer and evaluated in terms of Ni ion release and human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) proliferation (AlamarBlue), differentiation (alkaline phosphatase activity, ALP) and mineralization (Alizarin Red S staining). Scanning electron microscopy was employed to qualitatively corroborate the results. hMSCs were able to adhere and proliferate on both as-produced and surface modified ‘trabecular NiTi’ scaffolds, to acquire an osteoblastic phenotype and produce a mineralized extracellular matrix. Both ALP activity and mineralization were increased on porous scaffolds compared to control polystyrene plates. Experiments in a model coculture system of microvascular endothelial cells and hMSCs demonstrated the formation of pre-vascular structures in ‘trabecular NiTi’ scaffolds. These data suggest that load-bearing ‘trabecular Nitinol’ scaffolds could be effective in regenerating damaged or lost bone tissue.
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Concepts
Cellular differentiation, Compressive strength, Mesenchymal stem cell, Developmental biology, Stem cell, Tissues, Extracellular matrix, Bone marrow
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