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K Bisht, ME Brunck, T Matsumoto, C McGirr, B Nowlan, W Fleming, T Keech, G Magor, AC Perkins, J Davies, G Walkinshaw, L Flippin, IG Winkler and JP Levesque
Abstract
In normoxia, hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) are rapidly degraded within the cytoplasm as a consequence of their prolyl hydroxylation by oxygen-dependent prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD) enzymes. We have previously shown that hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) require HIF-1 for effective mobilization in response to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100/plerixafor. Conversely, HIF PHD inhibitors that stabilize HIF-1 protein in vivo enhance HSPC mobilization in response to G-CSF or AMD3100 in a cell-intrinsic manner. We now show that extrinsic mechanisms involving vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2), via bone marrow (BM) endothelial cells, are also at play. PTK787/vatalanib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor selective for VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, and neutralizing anti-VEGFR2 monoclonal antibody DC101 blocked enhancement of HSPC mobilization by FG-4497. VEGFR2 was absent on mesenchymal and hematopoietic cells and was detected only in Sca1+ endothelial cells in the BM. We propose that HIF PHD inhibitor FG-4497 enhances HSPC mobilization by stabilizing HIF-1α in HSPCs as previously demonstrated, as well as by activating VEGFR2 signaling in BM endothelial cells, which facilitates HSPC egress from the BM into the circulation.
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