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S Shao, V Rajendiran and JF Lovell
Abstract
Metalloporphyrins serve key roles in natural biological processes and also have demonstrated utility for biomedical applications. They can be encapsulated or grafted in conventional nanoparticles or can self-assemble themselves at the nanoscale. A wide range of metals can be stably chelated either before or after porphyrin nanoparticle formation, without the necessity of any additional chelator chemistry. The addition of metals can substantially alter a range of behaviors such as modulating phototherapeutic efficacy; conferring responsiveness to biological stimuli; or providing contrast for magnetic resonance, positron emission or surface enhanced Raman imaging. Chelated metals can also provide a convenient handle for bioconjugation with other molecules via axial coordination. This review provides an overview of some recent biomedical, nanoparticulate approaches involving gain-of-function metalloporphyrins and related molecules.
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