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DH Wei, YJ Zhao, P Di, JH Tian, X Jiang and Y Lin
Abstract
Objective: To establish a quantitative three-dimensional method based on intraoral scan and apply it to evaluation of the facial soft tissue contour alterations following single immediate implant and immediate provisionalization (IIPP) in central incisor via intraoral scanning. Methods: This study was a prospective clinical study. The trial was conducted at Department of Implantology, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, from January 2016 to September 2017. Twenty-nine eligible consecutive patients (15 women, 14 men) with a mean age of (34.3±12.0) were included and received immediate replacement of the failure maxillary single central incisor. A screw-retained immediate restoration was delivered for each patient. At 6-month follow-up, impression was taken and a screw-retained permanent restoration was performed for each patient. The anterior maxillary region was scanned by an intraoral scanning system at pre-surgery and 1-year follow-up. The Standard Tessellation Language (STL) files were output to a dedicated software and superimposed. Mid-facial recession and gingival zenith symmetry at 1-year follow-up were measured in the digital models. Three-dimensional configurations of the contour change volume were calculated and reconstructed for visual analysis. Furthermore, the following parameters were used to analyze the reconstructed volume: mean contour change in thickness (△d), mesio-distal width (D(W)), coronal-apical height (D(H)), contour change at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 mm apical to the free gingival margin on the implant site. Results: Twenty-seven out of twenty-nine enrolled patients were finally available for analysis. At 1-year follow-up, the mid-facial mucosa level at implant site was (0.23±0.39) mm apical to the gingival zenith of the contralateral tooth. In general, a contour collapse was found in every patient. △d, D(W) and D(H) of the collapsed volume were (0.62±0.22), (11.03±1.74) and (6.82±1.52) mm, respectively. Contour change at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 mm apical to the free gingival margin on the implant site were (0.54±0.48), (0.87±0.62), (1.03±0.46), (0.96±0.52), (0.90±0.52), (0.89±0.57) mm. Conclusions: The described quantitative measurement based on intraoral scan can be an effective method for assessment of soft tissue contour changes. At 1 year following single IIPP treatment in maxillary incisor, free gingival margin is stable, with only mild recession. The mean level of the facial soft tissue contour collapse is 0.62 mm.
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