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[Three-dimensional finite element analysis of the stress distribution of bone tissue around porous titanium implant]

Zhonghua kou qiang yi xue za zhi = Zhonghua kouqiang yixue zazhi = Chinese journal of stomatology | 12 Jan 2019

TS Liu, R Gao, T Wei and HQ Sun
Abstract
Objective: To analyze the stress distribution of different types of bone tissue around porous titanium implant in different mechanical loads and to further evaluate the biomechanical properties of porous titanium implant. Methods: Finite element (FE) models of implant restorations for the maxillary first premolar was established, and the diameter of implants in the models was 4.1 mm. Five models was constructed according to diameter of implant central pillar and the thickness of outer porosity: solid group (group A), central pillar 1.5 and 3.1 mm and outer porosity 30% (group B and C), central pillar 1.5 and 3.1 mm and outer porosity 40% (group D and E). Different loads (150 N vertical force, 50 N lateral force) were applied to the occlusal surface of implant restorations in type Ⅲ bone and maximal von Mises stress was evaluated. Meanwhile, a couple of simplified maxillary part models varied in four types of bone were constructed with the implants bearing load of simulation ultimate force to evaluate the stress distribution of different types of bone. Results: With different mechanical loading, the stress value of bone tissue around porous implant (group B-E) was greater than that in the solid structure (group A). Under the load of simulation ultimate force, the maximum stress of the bone rised with the increase of porosity and thickness of the porous implant. And the maximum stress value of the surrounding bone tissue changed with the change of bone. Under vertical loading, the maximal von Mises stress of the bone around solid implants of group A was 17.56 MPa, which was a little lower than that of group B and C. And the maximal equivalent von Mises stress of group D and E was 69.24 MPa. The results of lateral force and simulation ultimate force loading were similar. The stress of the bone tissue around implant increased with the decrease of bone quality. The maximum stress value of group D implant was 134.95 MPa. Conclusions: Porous structure of the implant is conducive to transmit stress to surrounding bone tissue and increases the mechanical stimulation of bone. However, if the value and direction of load are inappropriate or quality of bone is poor, pathological stress may be produced.
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