OPEN International journal of molecular sciences | 9 Nov 2018
GS Getz and CA Reardon
Apoprotein E (apoE) is a multifunctional protein. Its best-characterized function is as a ligand for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor family members to mediate the clearance of apoB-containing atherogenic lipoproteins. Among its other functions, apoE is involved in cholesterol efflux, especially from cholesterol-loaded macrophage foam cells and other atherosclerosis-relevant cells, and in reverse cholesterol transport. Reverse cholesterol transport is a mechanism by which excess cellular cholesterol is transported via lipoproteins in the plasma to the liver where it can be excreted from the body in the feces. This process is thought to have a role in the attenuation of atherosclerosis. This review summarizes studies on the role of apoE in cellular cholesterol efflux and reverse cholesterol transport and discusses the identification of apoE mimetic peptides that may promote these pathways.
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