Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation: An Update on Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Therapeutic Strategies
Clinical and applied thrombosis/hemostasis : official journal of the International Academy of Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis | 10 Oct 2018
C Papageorgiou, G Jourdi, E Adjambri, A Walborn, P Patel, J Fareed, I Elalamy, GT Gerotziafas and D Hoppensteadt
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is an acquired clinicobiological syndrome characterized by widespread activation of coagulation leading to fibrin deposition in the vasculature, organ dysfunction, consumption of clotting factors and platelets, and life-threatening hemorrhage. Disseminated intravascular coagulation is provoked by several underlying disorders (sepsis, cancer, trauma, and pregnancy complicated with eclampsia or other calamities). Treatment of the underlying disease and elimination of the trigger mechanism are the cornerstone therapeutic approaches. Therapeutic strategies specific for DIC aim to control activation of blood coagulation and bleeding risk. The clinical trials using DIC as entry criterion are limited. Large randomized, phase III clinical trials have investigated the efficacy of antithrombin (AT), activated protein C (APC), tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), and thrombomodulin ™ in patients with sepsis, but the diagnosis of DIC was not part of the inclusion criteria. Treatment with APC reduced 28-day mortality of patients with severe sepsis, including patients retrospectively assigned to a subgroup with sepsis-associated DIC. Treatment with APC did not have any positive effects in other patient groups. The APC treatment increased the bleeding risk in patients with sepsis, which led to the withdrawal of this drug from the market. Treatment with AT failed to reduce 28-day mortality in patients with severe sepsis, but a retrospective subgroup analysis suggested possible efficacy in patients with DIC. Clinical studies with recombinant TFPI or TM have been carried out showing promising results. The efficacy and safety of other anticoagulants (ie, unfractionated heparin, low-molecular-weight heparin) or transfusion of platelet concentrates or clotting factor concentrates have not been objectively assessed.
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