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Supplemental Vitamins and Minerals for CVD Prevention and Treatment

OPEN Journal of the American College of Cardiology | 2 Jun 2018

DJA Jenkins, JD Spence, EL Giovannucci, YI Kim, R Josse, R Vieth, S Blanco Mejia, E Viguiliouk, S Nishi, S Sahye-Pudaruth, M Paquette, D Patel, S Mitchell, M Kavanagh, T Tsirakis, L Bachiri, A Maran, N Umatheva, T McKay, G Trinidad, D Bernstein, A Chowdhury, J Correa-Betanzo, G Del Principe, A Hajizadeh, R Jayaraman, A Jenkins, W Jenkins, R Kalaichandran, G Kirupaharan, P Manisekaran, T Qutta, R Shahid, A Silver, C Villegas, J White, CWC Kendall, SC Pichika and JL Sievenpiper
The authors identified individual randomized controlled trials from previous meta-analyses and additional searches, and then performed meta-analyses on cardiovascular disease outcomes and all-cause mortality. The authors assessed publications from 2012, both before and including the U.S. Preventive Service Task Force review. Their systematic reviews and meta-analyses showed generally moderate- or low-quality evidence for preventive benefits (folic acid for total cardiovascular disease, folic acid and B-vitamins for stroke), no effect (multivitamins, vitamins C, D, β-carotene, calcium, and selenium), or increased risk (antioxidant mixtures and niacin [with a statin] for all-cause mortality). Conclusive evidence for the benefit of any supplement across all dietary backgrounds (including deficiency and sufficiency) was not demonstrated; therefore, any benefits seen must be balanced against possible risks.
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