Effects of tobacco smoke and electronic cigarette vapor exposure on the oral and gut microbiota in humans: a pilot study
OPEN PeerJ | 8 May 2018
CJ Stewart, TA Auchtung, NJ Ajami, K Velasquez, DP Smith, R De La Garza, R Salas and JF Petrosino
The use of electronic cigarettes (ECs) has increased drastically over the past five years, primarily as an alternative to smoking tobacco cigarettes. However, the adverse effects of acute and long-term use of ECs on the microbiota have not been explored. In this pilot study, we sought to determine if ECs or tobacco smoking alter the oral and gut microbiota in comparison to non-smoking controls.
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