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A Balčytis, M Ryu, S Juodkazis and J Morikawa
A thermocouple of Au-Ni with only 2.5-μm-wide electrodes on a 30-nm-thick Si3N4 membrane was fabricated by a simple low-resolution electron beam lithography and lift off procedure. The thermocouple is shown to be sensitive to heat generated by laser as well as an electron beam. Nano-thin membrane was used to reach a high spatial resolution of energy deposition and to realise a heat source of sub-1 μm diameter. This was achieved due to a limited generation of secondary electrons, which increase a lateral energy deposition. A low thermal capacitance of the fabricated devices is useful for the real time monitoring of small and fast temperature changes, e.g., due to convection, and can be detected through an optical and mechanical barrier of the nano-thin membrane. Temperature changes up to ~2 × 105 K/s can be measured at 10 kHz rate. A simultaneous down-sizing of both, the heat detector and heat source strongly required for creation of thermal microscopy is demonstrated. Peculiarities of Seebeck constant (thermopower) dependence on electron injection into thermocouple are discussed. Modeling of thermal flows on a nano-membrane with presence of a micro-thermocouple was carried out to compare with experimentally measured temporal response.
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Light, Energy, Fundamental physics concepts, Temperature, Thermodynamics, Electron beam lithography, Heat, Electron
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