American journal of physiology. Renal physiology | 11 Apr 2018
X Zhang, JK Ritter and N Li
Renal fibrosis is defined as the excessive deposition and modification of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the renal parenchyma in response to injury and inflammation, resulting in renal function loss. This condition is common to many chronic kidney diseases (CKD) that occur under diverse pathological conditions, such as diabetic and hypertensive nephropathy. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid metabolite involved in regulation of cardiovascular functions and pathogenesis of various cardiovascular diseases. S1P has also been seen as an important regulator of fibrotic diseases, playing significant roles in the differentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts and in the induction of inflammatory responses in early stages of fibrotic diseases. This mini review summarizes recent research findings on the importance of the sphingosine kinase-1 (SphK1)/S1P/S1P receptor (S1PR) axis in interaction with other classic fibrotic signaling pathways and the immune inflammatory response to reveal novel therapeutic targets for treatment of renal fibrosis.
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