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Micro-scale fusion in dense relativistic nanowire array plasmas

OPEN Nature communications | 16 Mar 2018

A Curtis, C Calvi, J Tinsley, R Hollinger, V Kaymak, A Pukhov, S Wang, A Rockwood, Y Wang, VN Shlyaptsev and JJ Rocca
Abstract
Nuclear fusion is regularly created in spherical plasma compressions driven by multi-kilojoule pulses from the world’s largest lasers. Here we demonstrate a dense fusion environment created by irradiating arrays of deuterated nanostructures with joule-level pulses from a compact ultrafast laser. The irradiation of ordered deuterated polyethylene nanowires arrays with femtosecond pulses of relativistic intensity creates ultra-high energy density plasmas in which deuterons (D) are accelerated up to MeV energies, efficiently driving D-D fusion reactions and ultrafast neutron bursts. We measure up to 2 × 106fusion neutrons per joule, an increase of about 500 times with respect to flat solid targets, a record yield for joule-level lasers. Moreover, in accordance with simulation predictions, we observe a rapid increase in neutron yield with laser pulse energy. The results will impact nuclear science and high energy density research and can lead to bright ultrafast quasi-monoenergetic neutron point sources for imaging and materials studies.
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Concepts
Helium-3, Energy, Tritium, Plasma, Neutron, Laser, Nuclear fission, Nuclear fusion
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