Comparative studies with EPR and MRI on the in vivo tissue redox status estimation using redox sensitive nitroxyl probes: influence of the choice of the region of interest
Free radical research | 13 Jan 2018
KI Matsumoto, JB Mitchell and MC Krishna
In vivo decay rates of a nitroxyl contrast agent were estimated by a MR redox imaging (MRRI) technique and compared with the decay rates obtained by the electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPRS) and imaging (EPRI). MRRI is a dynamic imaging technique employing T1-weighted pulse sequence, which can visualize a nitroxyl-induced enhancement of signal intensity by T1-weighted contrast. EPR techniques can directly measure the paramagnetic nitroxyl radical. Both the squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) tumor-bearing and normal legs of a female C3H mouse were scanned by T1-weighted SPGR sequence at 4.7 T with the nitroxyl radical, carbamoyl-proxyl (CmP), as the contrast agent. Similarly, the time course of CmP in normal muscle and tumor tissues was obtained using an 700-MHz EPR spectrometer with a surface coil. The time course imaging of CmP was also performed by 300 MHz CW EPR imager. EPRS and EPRI gave slower decay rates of CmP compared to the MRRI. Relatively slow decay rate at peripheral region of the tumor tissues, which was found in the image obtained by MRRI, may contribute to the slower decay rates observed by EPRS and/or the EPRI measurements. To reliably determine the tissue redox status from the reduction rates of nitroxyls such as CmP, heterogenic structure in the tumor tissue must be considered. The high spatial and temporal resolution of T1-weighted MRI and the T1-enhancing capabilities of nitroxyls support the use of this method to map tissue redox status which can be a useful biomarker to guide appropriate treatments based on the tumor microenvironment.
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