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V Haukisalmi, S Laaksonen, A Oksanen, K Beckmen, A Halajian, T Yanagida and M Nakao
Phylogenetic relationships of tapeworms of the genus Moniezia Blanchard, 1891 (Cestoda, Anoplocephalidae) parasitizing the Eurasian elk Alces alces, the moose A. americanus and the reindeer/caribou Rangifer tarandus (Cervidae) were studied using DNA sequences of two mitochondrial genes (cox1 and nad1). Several isolates from domestic ruminants, representing Moniezia expansa (Rudolphi, 1810) sensu lato and M. benedeni (Moniez, 1879) sensu lato, and one unidentified isolate from an African antelope, were also included in the analysis. Both genes identified the same six species of Moniezia, but interspecific phylogenetic relationships were better resolved by the nad1 data. The six species of Moniezia comprised two main clades: clade 1 that originates in bovids, with subsequent colonization of northern cervids in Eurasia, and clade 2 that originates in northern cervids, with subsequent specific divergence within these hosts. Clade 2 has a Holarctic distribution. None of the Moniezia specimens in Alces and Rangifer was conspecific with the species in domestic ruminants, suggesting that the custom of identifying Moniezia spp. in northern cervids either as M. expansa or M. benedeni is incorrect. At least two of the species parasitizing Alces and Rangifer have not been previously recognized. These findings challenge the results of all previous studies concerning the diversity and ecology of Moniezia spp. in northern cervids. The traditional classification into three subgenera (Moniezia Blanchard, 1891, Blanchariezia Skrjabin & Schultz, 1937 and Baeriezia Skrjabin & Schultz, 1937), based on the presence and type of interproglottidal glands, conflicts with the currently observed molecular phylogenetic relationships within the genus Moniezia.
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Biological classification, Antler, Phylogenetics, Reindeer, Capreolinae, Moose, Elk, Deer
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