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SS Kulkarni, RJ Denver, I Gomez-Mestre and DR Buchholz
Abstract
Phenotypic differences among species may evolve through genetic accommodation, but mechanisms accounting for this process are poorly understood. Here we compare hormonal variation underlying differences in the timing of metamorphosis among three spadefoot toads with different larval periods and responsiveness to pond drying. We find that, in response to pond drying, Pelobates cultripes and Spea multiplicata accelerate metamorphosis, increase standard metabolic rate (SMR), and elevate whole-body content of thyroid hormone (the primary morphogen controlling metamorphosis) and corticosterone (a stress hormone acting synergistically with thyroid hormone to accelerate metamorphosis). In contrast, Scaphiopus couchii has the shortest larval period, highest whole-body thyroid hormone and corticosterone content, and highest SMR, and these trait values are least affected by pond drying among the three species. Our findings support that the atypically rapid and canalized development of S. couchii evolved by genetic accommodation of endocrine pathways controlling metamorphosis, showing how phenotypic plasticity within species may evolve into trait variation among species.
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Concepts
Amphibian, Thyroid hormone, Toads, Endocrinology, Thyroid, Metabolism, Adrenal cortex, Evolution
MeSH headings
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