OPEN Environmental health and toxicology | 14 Oct 2017
S Bae, HC Kim, B Ye, W Choi, YS Hong and M Ha
Inferring causality is necessary to achieve the goal of epidemiology, elucidating the cause of disease. Causal inference is conducted in three steps; evaluation of validity of the study, inference of general causality and inference of individual causality. To evaluate validity of the study, we proposed a checklist which focuses on biases and generalizability. For general causal inference, Hill’s 9 viewpoints can be used. Individual causality can be inferred based on the general causality and evidence of exposure. Additional considerations may be needed for social or legal purposes; however, these additional considerations should be based on the scientific truth elucidated by the causal inference described in the present article.
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