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Immune checkpoint blockade in infectious diseases

Nature reviews. Immunology | 11 Oct 2017

MN Wykes and SR Lewin
Abstract
The upregulation of immune checkpoint molecules, such as programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4), on immune cells occurs during acute infections, such as malaria, as well as during chronic persistent viral infections, including HIV and hepatitis B virus. These pathways are important for preventing immune-driven pathology but can also limit immune-mediated clearance of the infection. The recent success of immune checkpoint blockade in cancer therapy suggests that targeting these pathways would also be effective for preventing and treating a range of infectious diseases. Here, we review our current understanding of immune checkpoint pathways in the pathogenesis of infectious diseases and discuss the potential for therapeutically targeting these pathways in this setting.
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Concepts
Protein, Bacteria, Hepatitis B, Cytotoxic T cell, Disease, Infection, Infectious disease, Immune system
MeSH headings
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