Nature structural & molecular biology | 25 Sep 2012
S Kitamura, H Ode, M Nakashima, M Imahashi, Y Naganawa, T Kurosawa, Y Yokomaku, T Yamane, N Watanabe, A Suzuki, W Sugiura and Y Iwatani
The human apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3, referred to as A3) proteins are cellular cytidine deaminases that potently restrict retrovirus replication. However, HIV-1 viral infectivity factor (Vif) counteracts the antiviral activity of most A3 proteins by targeting them for proteasomal degradation. To date, the structure of an A3 protein containing a Vif-binding interface has not been solved. Here, we report a high-resolution crystal structure of APOBEC3C and identify the HIV-1 Vif-interaction interface. Extensive structure-guided mutagenesis revealed the role of a shallow cavity composed of hydrophobic or negatively charged residues between the α2 and α3 helices. This region is distant from the DPD motif (residues 128-130) of APOBEC3G that participates in HIV-1 Vif interaction. These findings provide insight into Vif-A3 interactions and could lead to the development of new pharmacologic anti-HIV-1 compounds.
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