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N Thevaranjan, A Puchta, C Schulz, A Naidoo, JC Szamosi, CP Verschoor, D Loukov, LP Schenck, J Jury, KP Foley, JD Schertzer, MJ Larché, DJ Davidson, EF Verdú, MG Surette and DM Bowdish
Abstract
Levels of inflammatory mediators in circulation are known to increase with age, but the underlying cause of this age-associated inflammation is debated. We find that, when maintained under germ-free conditions, mice do not display an age-related increase in circulating pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. A higher proportion of germ-free mice live to 600 days than their conventional counterparts, and macrophages derived from aged germ-free mice maintain anti-microbial activity. Co-housing germ-free mice with old, but not young, conventionally raised mice increases pro-inflammatory cytokines in the blood. In tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-deficient mice, which are protected from age-associated inflammation, age-related microbiota changes are not observed. Furthermore, age-associated microbiota changes can be reversed by reducing TNF using anti-TNF therapy. These data suggest that aging-associated microbiota promote inflammation and that reversing these age-related microbiota changes represents a potential strategy for reducing age-associated inflammation and the accompanying morbidity.
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Concepts
Interleukin 1, Bacteria, Atherosclerosis, Cytokine, Apoptosis, Immune system, Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, Inflammation
MeSH headings
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