The enhancement of oxidative DNA damage by anti-diabetic metformin, buformin and phenformin, via nitrogen-centered radicals
Free radical research | 23 Jun 2016
S Ohnishi, H Mizutani and S Kawanishi
Metformin (N,N-dimethylbiguanide), buformin (1-butylbiguanide) and phenformin (1-phenethylbiguanide) are anti-diabetic biguanide drugs, expected to having anti-cancer effect. The mechanism of anti-cancer effect by these drugs is not completely understood. In this study, we demonstrated that these drugs dramatically enhanced oxidative DNA damage under oxidative condition. Metformin, buformin and phenformin enhanced generation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) in isolated DNA reacted with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and Cu(II), although these drugs did not form 8-oxodG in the absence of H2O2 or Cu(II). An electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study, utilizing alpha-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone and 3,3,5,5-tetramethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide as spin trapping agents, showed that nitrogen-centered radicals were generated from biguanides in the presence of Cu(II) and H2O2, and that these radicals were decreased by the addition of DNA. These results suggest that biguanides enhance Cu(II)/H2O2 -mediated 8-oxodG generation via nitrogen-centered radical formation. The enhancing effect on oxidative DNA damage may play a role on anti-cancer activity.
* Data courtesy of Altmetric.com