OPEN The New England journal of medicine | 31 Dec 2015
MF Greene and JL Ecker
Until the 20th century, home was where most births took place. By the second half of that century, hospital birth had become the norm in most Western countries. With this change came the “medicalization” of birth, as hospitals introduced interventions to reduce the risks inherent to childbirth that could not be performed in the home setting. Many of these interventions were beneficial, even lifesaving, for the mother or baby, but some, often judged in retrospect, seemed unnecessary. The occasional performance of a cesarean delivery for a fetus thought to have hypoxemia and acidosis followed by the delivery of an entirely . . .
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